[Mind-Culture Coevolution Home] [Tech Evol Contents]
BIBLIOGRAPHY :inference INFERENCE: Evidence about the lives of prehistoric sapients comes from paleontology and archeology, which can find only the durable material things that have been preserved, and from comparison of ethnographic reports. Goldenweiser attacks the latter method; Naroll defends it. Goldenweiser, Alexander A. [1880-1940] 1937 _ANTHROPOLOGY: An Introduction to Primitive Culture_. New York: F. S. Crofts & Co. 1970 Rpt. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp. ... what right has the evolutionist to arrange instances of cultural facts or processes gathered from different tribes into a successive series, and then claim it as historical, that is, that it actually occurred in this form, that the different instances were comprised in a concrete historic series of stages at some particular place and time, or in all places and times ... ? (p. 508) Naroll, Raoul 1973 HOLOCULTURAL THEORY TESTS. In _Main Currents in Cultural Anthropology_, edited by Raoul Naroll & Frada Naroll. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, pp. 309-384. "How then may we dare to infer the past history of mankind as a whole from the present conditions of specific peo- ples?" (1) By relying on psychic unity: For 25,000 years or more, all sapients have had approximately the same "innate mental characteristics"; hence contemporary "func- tional associations among culture traits" are valid for all of that period. (2) 25,000 years ago communities of sapients were all small; hence traits "functionally asso- ciated with small settlement populations may be expected to have prevailed, by and large, in the past as in the present" (p. 332). :AGRIBIBL Agriculture Anderson, E. 1952 _PLANTS, MAN AND LIFE_. Boston: Little, Brown, and Compa- ny. = PMLf Origins and early stages of agriculture. Accident may have played a big part. Braidwood, Robert John, and C. A. Reed 1957 _THE ACHIEVEMENT AND EARLY CONSEQUENCES OF FOOD-PRODUC- TION: A Consideration of the Archeological and Natural- historical Evidence_. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 22:17-31. = AECF Clark, C. & Haswell, M. 1966 _THE ECONOMICS OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE_. New York: St. Martin's Press. Labor is as high as for foragers, and generally much higher. Each male works at least 1000 hours/year. Clark, J[ohn] Desmond [1916- ; Rhodes-Livingstone Museum] & Brandt, Steven A., eds 1984 _FROM HUNTERS TO FARMERS: THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF FOOD PRODUCTION IN AFRICA_. = FHtF Berkeley: University of California Press. Cohen, Mark Nathan 1977 _THE FOOD CRISIS IN PREHISTORY: OVERPOPULATION AND THE ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE_. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. = FCPh 6 "central propositions":  Agriculture is "an accumulation of techniques" and most of them are known to foragers, who could use them more than they do without a conceptual advance.  Agriculture is harder work than foraging, and yields a poorer diet, but provides "more calories per unit of land per unit of time".  Population growth has occurred always and everywhere.  Population pressure is effectively "balanced from region to region". Most of Earth reached the limit for foraging at about the same time.  Agriculture began at about the same time in several places, far apart.  Agriculture was "only one in a long series of ecologi- cal adaptations to increased population." [pp. 15-16] Harlan, Jack R. 1967 A WILD WHEAT HARVEST IN TURKEY. _Archaeology_ 20:197-201. 1971 AGRICULTURAL ORIGINS: CENTERS AND NON-CENTERS. _Science_ 174:468-474. 1975 _CROPS AND MAN_. American Society of Agronomy. 1976 THE PLANTS AND ANIMALS THAT NOURISH MAN. _Scientific American_ 235(3):89-97. 1977 THE ORIGINS OF CEREAL CULTIVATION IN THE OLD WORLD. In Reed. Harlan, Jack R., De Wet, J. & Stemler, A., eds _THE ORIGINS OF AFRICAN PLANT DOMESTICATION_. The Hague: Mouton. Harlan, Jack R., Ellis, D. V., et al., eds _THE ORIGINS OF AFRICAN PLANT DOMESTICATION: THE ADVENT OF FOOD PRODUCTION IN WEST AFRICA_. Harlan, Jack R. & Zohary, Daniel / University of Illinois 1966 DISTRIBUTION OF WILD WHEATS AND BARLEY. Science 153: 1074-1080. In southeast Turkey A family group ... could easily har- vest wild cereals over a three-week span or more and, without even working very hard, could gather more grain than the family could possibly consume in a year." Harlan, Jack R. & et al. PLANT DOMESTICATION AND INDIGENOUS AFRICAN AGRICULTURE. In Harlan, Ellis, et al. Harner, Michael J. 1970 POPULATION PRESSURE AND THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF AGRICUL- TURALISTS. _Southwestern Journal of Anthropology_ 26:67- 86. Harris, David R. 1967 NEW LIGHT ON PLANT DOMESTICATION AND THE ORIGINS OF AGRI- CULTURE. _Geographical Review_ (January). 1969 AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS, ECOSYSTEMS AND THE ORIGINS OF AGRI- CULTURE. In Ucko & Dimbleby, 3-16. 1972 THE ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE IN THE TROPICS. _American Scientist_ 60:180-193. 1973 THE PREHISTORY OF TROPICAL AGRICULTURE: AN ETHNOECOLOGICAL MODEL. In Renfrew, 391-417. 1977 ALTERNATIVE PATHWAYS TOWARD AGRICULTURE. In Reed, 179- 244. 1978 THE ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE IN THE TROPICS. In Hunter & Whitten. Henry, Donald PREAGRICULTURAL SEDENTISM: THE NATUFIAN EXAMPLE. In T. D. Price & Brown, 365-381. = PSNX Levant, -10 K, settled, built storage houses, villages. KndH 392 Higgs, Eric S. [ -1976] & Jarman. M. R. 1969 THE ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE: A RECONSIDERATION. _Antiqui- ty_ 43:31-43. 1972 _PAPERS IN ECONOMIC PREHISTORY_. London: Cambridge Uni- versity Press. 1972 THE ORIGINS OF ANIMAL AND PLANT HUSBANDRY. In Higgs & Jarman, 3-14. 1975 _PALAEOECONOMY_. London: Cambridge University Press. Johnson, Allen W. & Timothy Earle / UCLA / Anthropology 1987 _THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SOCIETIES: FROM FORAGING GROUP TO AGRARIAN STATE_. Stanford University Press. = EHuS Rev Man 23:586 / Murra, John V. Rev AmEth 15:819-820 / Ross, Eric B. Kerridge, Eric 1967 _THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION_. London: Allen and Unwin. = AgRv Martin, Paul Schuyler 1966 AFRICA AND PLEISTOCENE OVERKILL. _Nature_ 212:339-42. The extinction of about 50 genera of large mammals in Africa coincides with the end of the Acheulian complex. It seems that the hunters exhausted their prey. (Cohen 93, 102) Reed, Charles A. 1977 Ed. _ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE_. The Hague: Mouton. = CROA Rindos, David 1984 _THE ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPEC- TIVE_. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. = DROA :MESOBIBL Mesopotamia Adams, Robert McCormick [1926- ] 1966 _THE EVOLUTION OF URBAN SOCIETY: EARLY MESOPOTAMIA AND PREHISTORIC MEXICO_. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co. = EvUS Braidwood, Robert J. 1952 _THE NEAR EAST AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF CIVILIZATION_. Condon Lectures, Oregon State System of Higher Education, Eugene, OR. = NEFC Diakonoff, Igor M. 1969 (Ed.) _ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA: A SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY_. Moscow: Nauka Publishing House. Redman, Charles L. 1978 _THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION: FROM EARLY FARMERS TO URBAN SOCIETY IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST_. San Francisco & New York: Freeman. = RCEF :WRITBIBL Writing Amiet, Pierre, Louvre Museum 1966 IL Y A 5000 ANS LES êLAMITES INVENTAIENT L'êCRITURE. _Archeologia_ 12:16-23. Civil, M., and R. D. Biggs 1966 NOTES SUR DES TEXTES SUMêRIENS ARCHA QUES. _Revue d'As- syriologie et d'ArchÇologie Orientale_ 60:1-16. Diringer, David 1948 _THE ALPHABET_. London: Hutchinson. 1968 3d ed. completely rev. _The Alphabet: A Key to the History of Mankind_. 2 vols. Regensburger, Reinhold (asst). New York: Funk & Wagnalls & London: Hutchinson. 1962 _WRITING_. (Ancient peoples and places, 25) New York: Prager & London: Thames and Hudson. 1969 London: Thames and Hudson. Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. 1979 _THE PRINTING PRESS AS AN AGENT OF CHANGE: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe_. 2 vols. Cambridge, England & New York: Cambridge University Press. Gaur, A. 1987 _A HISTORY OF WRITING_. London: British Library. Gelb, I. J. 1952 _A STUDY OF WRITING: THE FOUNDATIONS OF GRAMMATOLOGY_. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1963 2d Rev. Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Goody, Jack 1986 _THE LOGIC OF WRITING AND THE ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETY_. xviii, 213 pp., bibliogr. Cambridge University Press. Rev _Man_ 23:412-413 / Schmandt-Besserat, Denise, Univer- sity of Texas, Austin Harner, Michael J. 1980 THE ENVELOPES THAT BEAR THE FIRST WRITING. _Technology and Culture_ 21(3):357-385. Harris, Roy 1986 _THE ORIGIN OF WRITING_. London: Duckworth. WPGB 128 Less than 10% of languages have evolved an indigenous written form. Barely 100 with significant body of litera- ture. Writing "cannot be reduced to / a system for repro- ducing the sounds of spoken language, but rather that it is a system of representing ideas in its own right." "pinpointed the invention of writing to the invention of 'slotting' systems for accounting" [E.g., type slot + number slot.] "'evolutionary fallacy'" No gradual tran- sition from drawing to writing. [Notes from Donald; see HmRvBIBL* ] Harvey, David 1978 _GREEKS AND ROMANS LEARN TO WRITE_. In Havelock* and Hershbell, 63-78. Havelock, Eric Alfred / Yale University 1982 _THE LITERATE REVOLUTION IN GREECE AND ITS CULTURAL CONSE- QUENCES_. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Havelock, Eric A. & Hershbell, Jackson P., eds. 1978 _COMMUNICATION ARTS IN THE ANCIENT WORLD_. New York: Hastings House, Publishers, Inc. Innis, H. 1971 _Bias of Communication_. 2nd ed. Toronto. Jeffery, L. H. 1961 _THE LOCAL SCRIPTS OF ARCHAIC GREECE_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1982 GREEK ALPHABETIC WRITING. In _The Cambridge Ancient History_. 2d ed. vol. 3, part 1, pp. 819-33. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jordan, Julius VorlÑufiger Bericht Åber die on der Deutschen Forschungs-- gemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka unternommenen Ausgrabungen, Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin. 1931 2:47-48, fig. 41. Plain and complex tokens in the same envelope. WSOW Ch. 2n3. 1932 3:19. -3350 Tokens in Eanna temple precinct of Inanna, goddess of love, Uruk, Level VI. WSOW Ch. 2: 31, n7. Logan, Robert K. 1986 _The Alphabet Effect: The Impact of the Phonetic Alphabet on the Development of Western Civilization._ New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. Note that Logan is of the Toronto school, extreme in his views. Sampson, Geoffrey R. 1985 _WRITING SYSTEMS: A Linguistic Introduction_. London: Hutchinson & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. & Stanford, CA: Stan- ford University Press. Schmandt-Besserat, Denise 1977 AN ARCHAIC RECORDING SYSTEM AND THE ORIGIN OF WRITING. _Syro-Mesopotamian Studies_ 1:31ff. 1978 THE EARLIEST PRECURSOR OF WRITING. _Scientific American_ 238(6)50-59. 1992 _BEFORE WRITING_. Vol. 1. From Counting to Cuneiform. University of Texas Press. $60 Rev _Scientific American_ 267(5):132, 134 / Morrison, Philip Scribner, Sylvia & Michael Cole 1981 _THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LITERACY. Harvard University Press. Evidence that schooling, rather than literacy, accounts for most of the differences that have been attributed to the alphabet. Stroud, Ronald S. 1989 THE ART OF WRITING IN ANCIENT GREECE. MSOW 103-119 Stuart, D. & S. D. Houston 1989 Maya Writing. _Scientific American_ 249:82-89. "Mayan writing had less standardization of graphic conven- tion [than Egyptian], and the artist was given consider- able leeway in how to assemble the ideograms and phonetic markers of a given message, which were often incorporated into a larger pictorial representation" Donald* p. 293 Thomas, Rosalind _LITERACY AND ORALITY IN ANCIENT GREECE_. Cambridge Uni- versity Press. The first systematic and sustained treatment of the role of written and oral communication in Greece. It examines the recent theoretical debates about literature and orali- ty and explores the uses of writing and oral communica- tion, and their interaction, in ancient Greece. [Advt 9302] Twyman, M. 1979 A SCHEMA FOR STUDYING GRAPHIC LANGUAGE. In Kolers et al., Vol. 1. Linear and nonlinear symbols: From writing through math to maps. Donald* p. 317 Prep ARTICULATING GRAPHIC LANGUAGE: An historical perspective. In Kolers et al., vol 3. :GREEBIBL Ancient Greece Dodds, E. R. 1953 THE GREEKS AND THE IRRATIONAL. = GkIr Personal morality. "'transference of the notion of purity from the magical to the moral sphere', a process which was completed by the end of the fifth century." [Barbu 100] Forbes, Robert James / University of Amsterdam 1955 _STUDIES IN ANCIENT TECHNOLOGY_. 9 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 1964-1972 2d ed Archaeological and literary evidence for various technol- ogies from the Bronze Age through the Late Roman period arranged by topic. Heavily illustrated, if capriciously; bibliography, often incomplete or erroneous. Text of mixed quality. Encyclopedic. ( Oleson* 206) Gille, Bertrand [1920- ], et al., eds. 1980 _LES MECANICIENS GRECS: La naissance de la technologie_. Paris: Editions du Seuil. = MGNT Technological thought and intentional innovation from 6th century B.C. through Roman Empire. Notes omissions and failures of Hellenistic technology; asserts that Roman culture was incapable of carrying on Hellenistic Greek advances. Discredits cheap labor as a factor; emphasizes defects in materials, barrier between technological and scientific thought, and lack of energy. ( Oleson* 209) Guthrie, W. K. E. _THE GREEKS AND THEIR GODS_. London. = GGod "Justice then, for the Greeks, consisted first of all in doing what custom alone had established as being suitable for a particular station in life, whether that of serf, king, or even god." (p. 124; Barbu p. 98) Pre-6th centu- ry. Hill, Donald 1984 _A HISTORY OF ENGINEERING IN CLASSICAL AND MEDIEVAL TIMES_. Open Court. London: Croom Helm. = HECM Jaeger, Werner "The rationalist consciousness of selfhood" arose in Greece. [Barbu 72] "Aeschylus and Sophocles strove to mitigate the power of external conditions 'by making the guilt-laden man play a more active part in his destiny'. This striving reached a peak in Euripides whose heroes indulged in long introspec- tive analysis in order to put across a subjective facet of their action." [Barbu 102] 1945 _PAIDEIA: THE IDEALS OF GREEK CULTURE_. New York: Oxford University Press. "... cultural pattern coalesced about the language and a certain written heritage involved in it, particularly the poems of Homer and Hesiod." ( Parsons* p. 107) Landels, J. G. / University of Reading 1978 _ENGINEERING IN THE ANCIENT WORLD_. Berkeley: University of California Press & London: Chatto and Windus. = EgAW Maddin, Robert 1988 Ed. _THE BEGINNING OF THE USE OF METAL AND ALLOY_. Cam- bridge, MA: MIT Press. Maddin, Robert, Muhly, James D. & Wheeler, Tamara S. 1977 HOW THE IRON AGE BEGAN. _Scientific American_ 237(4):122- 131. Oates, David & Oates, Joan 1978 _THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION_. Oxford: Elsevier-Phaidon Press. "... no ancient Mesopotamian language had words to distin- guish between village, town and city. Indeed the idea of citizenship ... did not exist before the Greeks." (Max- well 1984:329) :InRvBIBL The Industrial Revolution Cardwell, Donald Stephen Lowell 1972 _TURNING POINTS IN WESTERN TECHNOLOGY: A study of technol- ogy, science and history_. New York: Science History Publications & Neale Watson Academic Publications, Inc. There has been a worldwide tabu on nature; it frightens people to look too closely at natural processes, let alone tamper with them. Europe rejected the tabu. (pp. 6-7) 1972 _TECHNOLOGY, SCIENCE AND HISTORY: A short study of the major developments in the history of Western mechanical technology and their relationships with science and other forms of knowledge_. London: Heinemann Educational. Church, Roy, with the assistance of Hall, Alan & Kanefsky, John 1986 _THE HISTORY OF THE BRITISH COAL INDUSTRY_. Vol. 3: 1830- 1913: _VICTORIAN PRE-EMINENCE_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. = HBC3 De Vries, Jan [1943- ] 1984 _EUROPEAN URBANIZATION, 1500-1800_. Cambridge, MA: Har- vard University Press. Cities must have all four of "population size, density of settlement, share of non-agricultural occupations and diversity of non-agricultural occupations." [p.11] Larger enterprises require co-ordinators, communications lines, and cross-cutting relationships. "(social rela- tionships that cross the boundaries of kinship, locality and traditional alliances)"  Flinn, Michael W., assisted by Stoker, David / National Coal Board 1984 _THE HISTORY OF THE BRITISH COAL INDUSTRY_. Vol 2, _1700- -1830: THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Forbes, R. J. 1958 POWER TO 1850. In Singer, 4:164. Habakkuk, H. J. & Postan, M. M., eds. 1965 _THE CAMBRIDGE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF EUROPE_, Vol. 6. _The Industrial Revolutions and after: Incomes, Population and Technological Change_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hyde, Charles K. [1945- ] 1977 _TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND THE BRITISH IRON INDUSTRY: 1700-1870_. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. = TCBI Jevons, W. S. 1865 _THE COAL QUESTION: AN INQUIRY CONCERNING THE PROGRESS OF THE NATION, AND THE PROBABLE EXHAUSTION OF OUR COAL- MINES_. London: Macmillan. Landes, David S. 1965 TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN WESTERN EUROPE: 1750-1914. In _Cambridge Economic History of Europe_, Vol. 6. _The Industrial Revolutions and after_, H. J. Habakkuk & M. M. Postan, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- versity Press, pp. 274-601. Machines, power, "the substitution of mineral for vegeta- ble or animal substances" as raw material.  "need or opportunity" and superiority that pays for change.  Britain had "technical skill and ... interest in machines and 'gymcracks'" -- not science.  Millwright knew math & physics.  Inventions in textiles: "(i) They came in a sequence of challenge and response, ..."  "(ii) The many small gains were just as important as the more spectacular advances."  "(iii) ... importance of purely technological consider- ations ... persistent lag of mechanization in woollen industry."  1969 _THE UNBOUND PROMETHEUS: Technological Change and Indus- trial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983 _REVOLUTION IN TIME: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Nef, John U. 1977 AN EARLY ENERGY CRISIS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. _Scientific American_ 237(5):140-151. For lack of wood, Britain switched to coal in the 16th century. :IR2BIBL The Second Industrial Revolution See also AMERBIBL* Brennan, Richard P. 1990 _LEVITATING TRAINS AND KAMIKAZE GENES: TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY FOR THE 1990s_. John Wiley & Sons. Rev NYTBR 1990 / Sharp, Bill; 910407:32 Clow, A. & Clow, N. L. 1952 _THE CHEMICAL REVOLUTION_. Batchworth Press. 1958 THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY: INTERACTION WITH THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. In HT4:230-257. Hardison, O. B., Jr. 1981 _ENTERING THE MAZE_. New York. 1989 _DISAPPEARING THROUGH THE SKYLIGHT: Culture and Technolo- gy in the Twentieth Century_. New York: Viking Penguin. Accumulation of capital, rise of multinationals and of the state. Mayr, Otto 1970 _THE ORIGINS OF FEEDBACK CONTROL_. Cambridge. Mass.: MIT Press. 1976 (Ed.) _PHILOSOPHERS AND MACHINES_. New York: Neale Wat- son. 1976 MAXWELL AND THE ORIGINS OF CYBERNETICS. In Mayr, 168-188. 1986 _AUTHORITY, LIBERTY & AUTOMATIC MACHINERY IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE_. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Petroski, Henry 1992 _THE EVOLUTION OF USEFUL THINGS_. Alfred A. Knopf. Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. & Kranzberg, Melvin 1967 _TECHNOLOGY IN WESTERN CIVILIZATION_: Vol 2, _Technology in the Twentieth Century_. New York: Oxford University Press. Wiener, Norbert [1894-1964] 1948 _CYBERNETICS: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine_. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1961 2nd ed. Williams, Trevor Illtyd 1978 (Editor) _A HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY_. Vols. 6 & 7, _THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, C. 1900 TO C. 1950_. Oxford, England & New York: Oxford University Press. = HT20 The major history of technology in English, extended 1900- 1950. 1982 _A SHORT HISTORY OF TWENTIETH-CENTURY TECHNOLOGY: c.1900-- c.1950. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. :ISLMBIBL Islam Banu Musa Bin Shakir Staff 1978 _THE BOOK OF INGENIOUS DEVICES_. Hill, Donald R., trans. Reidel & Kulwer Academic. Bulliet, Richard W. 1975 _THE CAMEL AND THE WHEEL_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univer- sity Press. Fernea, Robert A. / University of Texas / Austin 1970 _SHAYKH AND EFFENDI: CHANGING PATTERNS OF AUTHORITY AMONG THE EL SHABANA OF SOUTHERN IRAQ_. Harvard University Press. Gibb, H. A. R. 1962 _MOHAMMEDANISM_. New York: Galaxy Books. 1962 _STUDIES ON THE CIVILIZATION OF ISLAM_. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Gibb, H. A. R. & Bowen, H. 1957 _ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND THE WEST_. London: Oxford University Press. Hassan, Ahmad Yusuf, Al- & Hill, Donald Routledge 1986 _ISLAMIC TECHNOLOGY: AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press & New York: Unesco. Unesco commissioned this work. I find it hard to read because it is thick with self-praise. The authors seem to accept even rather vague claims uncritically. A necessary source where relevant, to be compared with whatever other sources can be found. Wiet, Gaston 1962 THE MOSLEM WORLD (SEVENTH TO THIRTEENTH CENTURIES. In Daumas, 1:336-372. :CHINABIBL China Chang, Kwang-chih / Harvard University 1963 _THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF ANCIENT CHINA_. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1968 2d ed 1977 3d ed 1986 4th ed 1976 _EARLY CHINESE CIVILIZATION : ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPEC- TIVES_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1980 _SHANG CIVILIZATION_. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1981 IN SEARCH OF CHINA'S BEGINNINGS: NEW LIGHT ON AN OLD CIVILIZATION. _American Scientist_ 69:148-160. 1983 _ART, MYTH, AND RITUAL: THE PATH TO POLITICAL AUTHORITY IN ANCIENT CHINA_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Chang, Kwang-chih / Harvard University 1984 CHINA. _American Antiquity_ 49:754-756. Chen, C-Y., ed 1987 _SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN CHINESE CIVILIZATION_. Pro- ceedings of the workshop held at the University of Cali- fornia, San Diego, Sept. 1985. World Scientific Pub. Creel, Herrlee G. 1954 _THE BIRTH OF CHINA: A Study of the Formative Period of Chinese Civilization_. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock. 1970 _THE ORIGINS OF STATECRAFT IN CHINA_. Vol. 1: _The West- ern Chou Empire_. University of Chicago Press. Fairbank, John King 1992 _CHINA: A NEW HISTORY_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. The last work of a distinguished scholar who had spent a long lifetime attempting to understand China and the Chinese. Some reason why China did not keep up with the West after 1500 appears on every page. I recommend this book very highly. Ho, Ping-ti 1962 _THE LADDER OF SUCCESS IN IMPERIAL CHINA_. New York: Columbia University Press. 1975 _THE CRADLE OF THE EAST_: An Inquiry into the Indigenous Origins of Techniques and Ideas of Neolithic and Early Historic China, 5000-1000 B.C. Hong Kong: Chinese Univer- sity of Hong Kong, and Chicago: University ofChicago. 1977 THE INDIGENOUS ORIGINS OF CHINESE AGRICULTURE. In Reed. Keightley, David N. 1977 PING-TI HO AND THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION. _Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies_ 37(Dec):389-91. Needham, Joseph [1900- ] 1954 _SCIENCE AND CIVILISATION IN CHINA_. Cambridge [Eng.]: Cambridge University Press. The most highly-reputed work on its topic, in several volumes published over a long span of years. Temple, Robert K. G. 1987 _THE GENIUS OF CHINA: Three Thousand Years of Discovery, Invention and Science_. Simon & Schuster. 1986 _CHINA: LAND OF DISCOVERY_. Needham, Joseph, intro. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Patrick Stephens. :INDIABIBL India Allchin, Bridget & Allchin, F. Raymond 1982 _THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN_. Cam- bridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. Bhardwaj, H. C. [1931- ] 1979 _ASPECTS OF ANCIENT INDIAN TECHNOLOGY: A Research Based on Scientific Methods_. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass & Orient Book Dist. Dharampal [1922- ], comp 1971 _INDIAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY: Some contemporary European accounts_. Delhi: Impex India. Marshall, J., Sir 1924 FIRST LIGHT ON A LONG FORGOTTEN CIVILISATION. _Illustrat- ed London News_ Sept. 20: 528-532. 1931 _MOHENJO-DARO AND THE INDUS CIVILISATION I_. London: Probsthain. Piggott, Stuart 1950 _PREHISTORIC INDIA_. Baltimore & Harmondsworth: Penguin. :ARCHBIBL Archeology Clark, J. Grahame D. [1907- ] 1946 _FROM SAVAGERY TO CIVILIZATION_. London: Cobbett Press. 1962 _WORLD PREHISTORY: AN OUTLINE_. London: Cambridge Univer- sity Press. Gibbon, Guy E[dward] [1939- ] 1984 _ANTHROPOLOGICAL ARCHAEOLOGY_. New York: Columbia Uni- versity Press. Piggott, Stuart 1961 _THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION_: The First World Survey of Human Cultures in Early Times. London: Thames and Hudson. Rev AA 64:888-892 / Rouse, Irving Tattersall, Ian H., Eric Delson & John Van Vouvering, eds. 1988 _ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HUMAN EVOLUTION AND PREHISTORY_. New York: Garland. Rev Man 25:153-154 / Wynn, Thomas Whitehouse, Ruth D. & Wilkins, John / Roxby Archaeology Limited 1986 _MAKING OF CIVILIZATION: History Discovered through Ar- chaeology_. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. & Random House, Inc., dist. Many good color photos and maps. Chronology. :MaAzBIBL Aztec and Maya Hammond, Norman 1982 _ANCIENT MAYA CIVILIZATION_. New Brunswick, N,J,: Rutgers Universiry Press. Hassig, Ross 1985 _TRADE, TRIHUTE, AND TRANSPORTATION: Tbe Sixteenth-Century Political Economy of the Valley of Mexico. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 1988 _AZTEC WARFARE. Norman, OK: University of Ok1ahoma Press. Kurtz, Donald V. [1933- ] University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee / Anthropology 1978 THE LEGITIMATION OF THE AZTEC STATE. In Claessen & Skal- nik, 169-189. 1987 THE ECONOMICS OF URBANIZATION AND STATE FORMATION AT TEOTIHUAC N. _Current Anthropology_ 28:329-353. Major explanation is ecological, an Oriental-despotic state based on irrigation. By analogy to West Africa: A city grows in response to the dynamic interplay between exports and imports. The initial kick comes from the replacement of import with export; explosive growth is the resuslt of the replacement of old work with new, more differentiated work made available by new diverse imports. Sanders, William T. & Price, Barbara J. 1968 _MESOAMERICA: THE EVOLUTION OF A CIVILIZATION_. New York: Random House. Sanders, Wil1iam, and Webster, David 1988 THE MESOAMERICAN URBAN TRADITION. _American Anthropolo- gist_ 90:521-546. Vaillant, George Clapp [1901-1945] 1941 _THE AZTECS OF MEXICO: Origin, Rise and Fall of the Aztec Nation_. New York: Doubleday, Doran. 1950 Reprinted. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 1960 Revised by Suzannah B. Vaillant. Garden City: Doubleday. :EDUCBIBL Education Argles, M. 1964 _SOUTH KENSINGTON TO ROBBINS: An Account of English Tech- nical and Scientific Education since 1851_. London: Long- mans, Green and Co. Bailyn, Bernard 1960 _EDUCATION IN THE FORMING OF AMERICAN SOCIETY_. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Includes institutions other than schools and colleges; considers impact on society. 1967 _THE IDEOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. "The phenomenon of cultural import is especially well elucidated" [TAEd 159] Cremin, Lawrence A[rthur] [1925- ] 1951 _THE AMERICAN COMMON SCHOOL: AN HISTORIC CONCEPTION_. New York: Teachers College. 1970 _AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE COLONIAL EXPERIENCE_. New York: Harper & Row. 1977 TRADITIONS OF AMERICAN EDUCATION. 1, THE COLONIAL EXPERI- ENCE: 1607-1783. = TAEd New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1980 _AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE NATIONAL EXPERIENCE_. New York: Harper & Row. 1988 _AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE METROPOLITAN EXPERIENCE, 1876- 1980_. New York: Harper & Row. Rev NYTBR / Gutmann, Amy "Even when the message is criti- cal, the tone ... is celebratory. Like Whitman's poetry, Mr. Cremin's history affirms what intellectuals are often too ready to deny: the capacity of common men and women to educate and govern themselves." Day, Charles R. _EDUCATION FOR THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD: The Ecoles d'Arts et MÇtiers and the Rise of French Industrial Engineering_. Rev _Technology and Culture_ 30:159 / Langins, Janis. Jensen, Richard J. & Friedberger, Mark 1976 _EDUCATION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE: AN HISTORICAL STUDY OF IOWA, 1870-1930_. The Newberry Library, Chicago. Census data: Mutual effects of socioeconomic status and schooling in Iowa. [TAEd 157] Marrou, H.-I. / Sorbonne 1956 _A HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN ANTIQUITY_. Lamb, George, trans. New York: Sheed and Ward. 1965 _HISTOIRE DE LêDUCATION DANS L'ANTIQUITê_. 6th ed. Paris: Editions du Seuil. Ostracism implies ability to write by early -5th c. (p. 83) Rosenthal, T. & Zimmerman, B. 1978 _SOCIAL LEARNING AND COGNITION_. New York: Academic Press. Evidence about learning without explicit teaching. Russell, Colin Archibald / Open University 1983 _SCIENCE AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN BRITAIN AND EUROPE: 1700- 1900_. London & New York: Macmillan Press Ltd. & St. Martin's Press, Inc. Troen, Selwyn K. 1973 POPULAR EDUCATION IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY ST. LOUIS. _His- tory of Education Quarterly_ 8:23-41. Census data and school statistics: Percentage of St. Louis children attending school or actively employed, ages 5-20. Average ages for school entrance and leaving. TAEd 148 :XFERBIBL From Britain to America Harper, L. A. 1939 _THE BRITISH NAVIGATION LAWS_. New York. Secrecy poli- cies. Jeremy, David John [1939- ] 1981 _TRANSATLANTIC INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: The diffusion of textile technologies between Britain and America, 1790-- 1830s_. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Rodgers, C. T. 1852 _AMERICAN SUPERIORITY AT THE WORLD'S FAIR_. Philadelphia. Rosenberg, Nathan [1927- ] 1969 Ed. _THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OF MANUFACTURES: The Report of the Committee on the Machinery of the United States, 1855_. Edinburgh University Press. :NRGYBIBL Energy Adams, Richard Newbold [1924- ] 1975 _ENERGY AND STRUCTURE: A THEORY OF SOCIAL POWER_. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1978 MAN, ENERGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY: I can Feel the Heat, but where's the Light? _American Anthropologist 80:297-309. 1988 _THE EIGHTH DAY: SOCIAL EVOLUTION AS THE SELF-ORGANIZATION OF ENERGY_. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. Rev AA 91:776-777 / Aberle, David F. Rev Man 25:354 / Chapman, M. Cottrell, William Frederick [1903- ] 1955 _ENERGY AND SOCIETY: The Relation between Energy, Social Change, and Economic Development_. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Rev AA 58:1141-1144. 1970 repr Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. LeBel, Phillip G. 1982 _ENERGY, ECONOMICS, AND TECHNOLOGY_. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Schurr, Sam H. & Netschert, Bruce C. / Resources for the Future 1960 _ENERGY IN THE AMERICAN ECONOMY, 1850-1975: An Economic Study of its History and Prospects_. Baltimore, MD: Johns University Hopkins Press. 1972 _ENERGY, ECONOMIC GROWTH, AND THE ENVIRONMENT_. Balti- more, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Thirring, Hans 1958 _ENERGY FOR MAN: FROM WINDMILLS TO NUCLEAR POWER_. Bloom- ington, IN: Indiana University Press. Rev AA 61:513-515 / White, Leslie A. 1976 With a new introduction by Murray Bookchin. New York: Harper Colophon. White, Leslie Alvin [1900-1975] 1943 ENERGY AND THE EVOLUTION OF CULTURE. _American Anthropol- ogist 45:335-356. This is White's first published statement on energy, as far as I know. He developed the theme for the rest of his life. :FORGBIBL Foragers Bicchieri, Marco G., ed. 1972 _HUNTERS AND GATHERERS TODAY_. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Cheneviere, Alain 1988 _VANISHING TRIBES: PRIMITIVE MAN ON EARTH_. Roquemaurel, Marjorie de, trans. Dolphin/Doubleday. 20 cultures; by a "linguist and documentary film maker". Anecdotal; color pictures. Rev NYTBR 880228 / Laschever, Sara Kemp, William B. 1971 THE FLOW OF ENERGY IN A HUNTING SOCIETY: How energy is channeled in such a society is investigated in an Eskimo village. E&Pr* 55-68 Lee, Richard Borshay 1968 _WHAT HUNTERS DO FOR A LIVING, OR, HOW TO MAKE OUT ON SCARCE RESOURCES_. In Lee and DeVore ( Hunt* ), 30-48. 1969 _!KUNG BUSHMAN SUBSISTENCE: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS_. In Vayda, 47-79. 1979 _THE !KUNG SAN: MEN. WOMEN. AND WORK IN A FORAGING SOCI- ETY_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rev AA 83:364-367 / Bicchieri, Marco 1992 _ART, SCIENCE, OR POLITICS? THE CRISIS IN HUNTER-GATHERER STUDIES_. AA 94:31- = ASP? Lee, Richard Borshay & DeVore, Irven 1968 (Eds., with the assistance of Jill Nash) _MAN THE HUNTER_. Symposium, University of Chicago, 1966. Chicago: Aldine. 1968 PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF HUNTERS AND GATHERERS. In Lee & DeVore, 3-20. McCarthy, F., and M. McArthur 1960 THE FOOD QUEST AND THE TIME FACTOR IN ABORIGINAL ECONOMIC LIFE. In Mountford, 2:145-194. Pelto, Pertti J. 1973 THE SNOWMOBILE REVOLUTION: TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC_. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. Sahlins, Marshall David [b. 1930] 1972 _STONE AGE ECONOMICS_. Chicago: Aldine Press. :POPLBIBL Population Coale, Ansley J. 1972 _THE GROWTH AND STRUCTURE OF HUMAN POPULATIONS_. Prince- ton University Press. 1974 THE HISTORY OF THE HUMAN POPULATION. _Scientific Ameri- can_ 231(3):41-51. Deevey, Edward S., Jr. 1956 THE HUMAN CROP. _Scientific American_ 194:105-112. 1960 THE HUMAN POPULATION. _Scientific American_ 204(3):194- 204. Dumond, Don E. 1975 THE LIMITATION OF HUMAN POPULATION: A NATURAL HISTORY. _Science_ 187:713-721. Hassan, Fekri A. / Washington State University / Anthropology 1973 ON METHODS OF POPULATION GROWTH DURING THE NEOLITHIC. _Current Anthropology_ 14:535-542. 1974 POPULATION GROWTH AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION. _Rev. Anthro- pol._ 1:205-212. 1975 DETERMINATION OF THE SIZE, DENSITY AND GROWTH RATE OF HUNTING-GATHERING POPULATIONS. In Polgar, 27-52. 1975 REPLY TO STEPHENS. _Current Anthropology_ 16:289-290. 1980 THE GROWTH AND REGULATION OF HUMAN POPULATIONS IN PREHIS- TORIC TIMES. In Cohen, Malpass & Klein, 304-320. 1981 _DEMOGRAPHIC ARCHAEOLOGY_. New York: Academic Press. 1984 ENVIRONMENT AND SUBSISTENCE IN PREDYNASTIC EGYPT. FHtF 57-64. Keyfitz, N. 1966 HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE LIVED ON EARTH?. _Demogr._ 3:581- 582. McEvedy, Colin & Jones, Richard 1978 _ATLAS OF WORLD POPULATION HISTORY_. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books Ltd. :AMERBIBL America Aitken, Hugh G. J. 1960 _TAYLORISM AT WATERTOWN ARSENAL: Scientific Management in Action, 1908-1915_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Beniger, James R. 1986 _THE CONTROL REVOLUTION: Technological and Economic Ori- gins of the Information Society_. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. = CRTe Breeden, Robert L., ed 1971 _THOSE INVENTIVE AMERICANS_. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society / Special Publications Division. = TIAm Hawke, David Freeman 1988 _NUTS AND BOLTS FROM THE PAST_: A History of American Technology, 1776-1980_. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York. Heyn, Ernest Victor [1904- ] 1972 _A CENTURY OF WONDERS: 100 Years of Popular Science_. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. Hindle, Brooke & Lubar, Steven 1986 _ENGINES OF CHANGE: The American Industrial Revolution 1790-1860_. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Hounshell, David 1984 _THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES_. Johns Hopkins University Press. Hughes, Thomas Parke 1989 _AMERICAN GENESIS: A Century of Invention and Technologi- cal Enthusiasms 1870-1970_. New York: Viking. The invention of systems; the spread of large systems; and the emergence of a technological culture, of mammoth government systems, and counterculture reaction to sys- tems" (pp. 6-7). I enjoyed this book. Mayr, Otto & Post, Robert C., eds. 1981 _YANKEE ENTERPRISE: The Rise of the American System of Manufactures_. Noble, David F. 1977 _AMERICA BY DESIGN: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism_. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1986 _FORCES OF PRODUCTION: A Social History of Industrial Automation_. New York: Oxford University Press. FOHN Norman, Bruce 1976 _THE INVENTING OF AMERICA_. London & New York: British Broadcasting Corporation & Taplinger Publishing Company. = InAm Pursell, Carroll W., Jr., ed 1981 _TECHNOLOGY IN AMERICA: A history of individuals and ideas_. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. York, Neil Longley / Brigham Young University 1985 _MECHANICAL METAMORPHOSIS: Technological Change in Revolu- tionary America_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
[Mind-Culture Coevolution Home] [Tech Evol Contents]
[1 History] [2 Ranks] [3 Energetics] [4 Informatics]
[5 Politics] [6 Investment] [7 Appropriate] [8 Best They Could]
[Bibliography] [Figures] [Notes]