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            Copyright (c) 1991, 1993 by David G. Hays
                      (c) 1995 by Janet Hays


Finding stages in development is commonplace; attacking the idea
of stages is equally so.  Here are some stage-finders:

     Savagery, Barbarism, Civilization.  ( Morgan* 1909)

     Primitive.  Then social stratification and explicit
     cultural legitimation may enter, with differentiation
     of society and culture, leading to ...  Intermediate
     (ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, Islamic
     empires, Rome).  Then a generalized legal order may
     enter, leading to ... Modern societies.  Differentia-
     tion of society and culture comes with writing.
     ( Parsons* 1977, pp. 11-13)

     "Mankind has passed through three fundamental stages in
     its history: the pre-agrarian, the agrarian, and the
     industrial."  ( Gellner* p. 5)

     Three waves:  Agriculture, industry, and a postindust-
     rial wave of holistic problem solving, electronic
     communications.  ( Toffler* )

Ranks, as you will soon see, are not about the means of produc-
tion, the organization of work, nor even the legal order.  What
sets Wiora apart from the other stage-finders is that music is as
remote from technology as you can get, having to do with the
minds, the hearts, the souls of the people.  Rank is about such

     A recent paper by Robertson* (1990) sorts stages by informa-
tion-processing capacity.


In 1703, Sir John Lowther had begun using carts in West Cumber-
land to reduce the cost of moving coal from minehead to a water-
way.  John Spedding observed that they frightened packhorses and
country people.  The carts were quite large.  Previously, pack-
horses had been used to carry the coal.  From HBC2* .


     The concept of a nation arose after the Renaissance, and
England is the paradigm case.  But there are also differences in
governance between Eden and Babylon, between Athens and Rome, and
between New York and Tokyo.  Questions of governance are discus-
sed in Chapter 5.


     'Ergon' is 'work'.
     'Eco'   is 'house'.

     So Economics is the measurement of house-things, that is to
say, subsistence.  And Ergonomics is the measurement of work. 
One particular use has had a vogue lately, the reduction of
wasted effort arount the workplace.  But I feel the wider use is


     A pharaoh of Egypt who lived about a century earlier than
Moses is also described as an inventor of monotheism, an in-
fluence on Moses (which is quite possible).  However,

     "He is described as the first monotheist.  In fact, he
     proclaimed the solar disk as his own deity. ... 'Thou
     sole god, like to whom there is none other.'  In the
     language of polytheism this would mean that the god in
     question was the preferred one, but Ikhnaton worshipped
     no other god.  The essential novelty of his theology
     was the doctrine that he alone knew the god and was its
     sole image on the earth. ... The reform was not mono-
     theistic but egocentric; only its intolerance was
     monotheistic."  (Elias J. Bickerman, in _Columbia
     History of the World_, p. 81)

Insofar as he identified the one god with the sun, he fell short
of spiritualizing religion, and by making himself the sole inter-
preter he fell short of universalization.


     The species we belong to is called by biologists _Homo sapi-
ens sapiens_.  To escape all hints of terminological preference
for the masculine gender, I call us _sapients_.

         From Murdock's _Outline of Cultural Materials_

                         Citation: GPM*

     This is only a small selection from a long list; the 2-
     digit headings all have 3-digit subheadings.

     22   Food quest
     23   Animal husbandry
     24   Agriculture
     25   Food processing
     26   Food consumption
     265  Food service industries
     27   Drink, drugs, and indulgence
     277  Tobacco industry
     278  Pharmaceuticals
     28   Leather, textiles, and fabrics
     29   Clothing
     30   Adornment
     303  Manufacture of toilet accessories
     306  Jewelry manufacture

     31   Exploitative activities
     311  Land use
     312  Water supply
     313  Lumbering
     314  Forest products
     315  Oil and gas wells
     316  Mining and quarrying
     317  Special deposits
     32   Processing of basic materials
     325  Metallurgy
     326  Smiths and their crafts
     33   Building and construction
     34   Structures
     35   Equipment and maintenance of buildings
     36   Settlements

     37   Energy and power
     371  Power development
     372  Fire
     373  Light
     374  Heat
     375  Thermal power
     376  Water power
     377  Electric power
     378  Atomic energy
     379  Miscellaneous power production
     38   Chemical industries
     39   Capital goods industries
     40   Machines
     41   Tools and appliances
     42   Property
     43   Exchange
     44   Marketing
     45   Finance
     46   Labor
     47   Business and industrial organizations

     48   Travel and transportation
     49   Land transport
     50   Water and air transport
     71   Military technology
     75   Sickness
     757  Medical therapy


     Although "peasant" carries negative connotations, it is the
proper technical term for those who are bound to the land they
farm, who regard themselves as temporary caretakes of land that
belongs to their ancestors and descendants as much as to them-
selves, who have little regard for writing and book learning, who
regulate marriage closely, and live in family units with little
support from outside except for a few specialties like iron-
smithing.  Znaniecki wrote the classic discussion; Macfarlane
searched for peasants in Britain.

Macfarlane, Alan

          Property and Social Transition_.  Basil Blackwell.

          1979 New York: Cambridge University Press.

          Peasant:  Agriculture, family is production unit.  Land
          belongs to the lineage, is not subject to sale or
          division among heirs.  No labor market; the family
          members work for the family's welfare, not for money. 
          Little or no money at all.

          Marriage is almost universal, status of women is low
          but their work is important.  Family is large to pro-
          vide workers.

          "Yet the search for the origins has been taken back ...
          [to 1200] without finding the roots of the peculiar set
          of inter-related features which have been isolated." 
          (p. 206)


The United Nations began compiling a Human Development Index a
few years ago.  It is recompiled annually.  The version that I
used is on pp. 351-352 of Paul Kennedy's PREP21* .  School en-
rollment data are from p. 142-143 of _The 1993 Information Please
Almanac_, which dates them as of 1990 and credits the UN.

Here is a little more detail:

     INCOME              HDI            Enrollment
     $0-499         16   0.0-0.19  13   0-19%     67
     $500-999       21   0.2-0.29  14   20-39%     7
     $1000-4999     59   0.3-0.39  13   40-59%    17
     $5000-9999     14   0.4-0.49  11   60-79%    10
     $10,000 up     19   0.5-0.59  11   80-100%   36
                         0.6-0.69   8
                         0.7-0.79  21
                         0.8-0.89  12
                         0.9-0.99  34

Not reporting enrollment:  Canada, USA, all of Europe, etc.

[Mind-Culture Coevolution Home] [Contents]
[1 History] [2 Ranks] [3 Energetics] [4 Informatics]
[5 Politics] [6 Investment] [7 Appropriate] [8 Best They Could]
[Bibliography] [Figures] [Notes]