Copyright (c) 1991, 1993 by David G. Hays (c) 1995 by Janet Hays FOOTNOTES :stage Finding stages in development is commonplace; attacking the idea of stages is equally so. Here are some stage-finders: Savagery, Barbarism, Civilization. ( Morgan* 1909) Primitive. Then social stratification and explicit cultural legitimation may enter, with differentiation of society and culture, leading to ... Intermediate (ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, Islamic empires, Rome). Then a generalized legal order may enter, leading to ... Modern societies. Differentia- tion of society and culture comes with writing. ( Parsons* 1977, pp. 11-13) "Mankind has passed through three fundamental stages in its history: the pre-agrarian, the agrarian, and the industrial." ( Gellner* p. 5) Three waves: Agriculture, industry, and a postindust- rial wave of holistic problem solving, electronic communications. ( Toffler* ) Ranks, as you will soon see, are not about the means of produc- tion, the organization of work, nor even the legal order. What sets Wiora apart from the other stage-finders is that music is as remote from technology as you can get, having to do with the minds, the hearts, the souls of the people. Rank is about such matters. A recent paper by Robertson* (1990) sorts stages by informa- tion-processing capacity. :CART In 1703, Sir John Lowther had begun using carts in West Cumber- land to reduce the cost of moving coal from minehead to a water- way. John Spedding observed that they frightened packhorses and country people. The carts were quite large. Previously, pack- horses had been used to carry the coal. From HBC2* . :CITYSTATE The concept of a nation arose after the Renaissance, and England is the paradigm case. But there are also differences in governance between Eden and Babylon, between Athens and Rome, and between New York and Tokyo. Questions of governance are discus- sed in Chapter 5. :ERGONOMICS 'Ergon' is 'work'. 'Eco' is 'house'. So Economics is the measurement of house-things, that is to say, subsistence. And Ergonomics is the measurement of work. One particular use has had a vogue lately, the reduction of wasted effort arount the workplace. But I feel the wider use is natural. :IKHNATON A pharaoh of Egypt who lived about a century earlier than Moses is also described as an inventor of monotheism, an in- fluence on Moses (which is quite possible). However, "He is described as the first monotheist. In fact, he proclaimed the solar disk as his own deity. ... 'Thou sole god, like to whom there is none other.' In the language of polytheism this would mean that the god in question was the preferred one, but Ikhnaton worshipped no other god. The essential novelty of his theology was the doctrine that he alone knew the god and was its sole image on the earth. ... The reform was not mono- theistic but egocentric; only its intolerance was monotheistic." (Elias J. Bickerman, in _Columbia History of the World_, p. 81) Insofar as he identified the one god with the sun, he fell short of spiritualizing religion, and by making himself the sole inter- preter he fell short of universalization. :sapients The species we belong to is called by biologists _Homo sapi- ens sapiens_. To escape all hints of terminological preference for the masculine gender, I call us _sapients_. :OCM From Murdock's _Outline of Cultural Materials_ Citation: GPM* This is only a small selection from a long list; the 2- digit headings all have 3-digit subheadings. 22 Food quest 23 Animal husbandry 24 Agriculture 25 Food processing 26 Food consumption 265 Food service industries 27 Drink, drugs, and indulgence 277 Tobacco industry 278 Pharmaceuticals 28 Leather, textiles, and fabrics 29 Clothing 30 Adornment 303 Manufacture of toilet accessories 306 Jewelry manufacture 31 Exploitative activities 311 Land use 312 Water supply 313 Lumbering 314 Forest products 315 Oil and gas wells 316 Mining and quarrying 317 Special deposits 32 Processing of basic materials 325 Metallurgy 326 Smiths and their crafts 33 Building and construction 34 Structures 35 Equipment and maintenance of buildings 36 Settlements 37 Energy and power 371 Power development 372 Fire 373 Light 374 Heat 375 Thermal power 376 Water power 377 Electric power 378 Atomic energy 379 Miscellaneous power production 38 Chemical industries 39 Capital goods industries 40 Machines 41 Tools and appliances 42 Property 43 Exchange 44 Marketing 45 Finance 46 Labor 47 Business and industrial organizations 48 Travel and transportation 49 Land transport 50 Water and air transport 71 Military technology 75 Sickness 757 Medical therapy :peasants Although "peasant" carries negative connotations, it is the proper technical term for those who are bound to the land they farm, who regard themselves as temporary caretakes of land that belongs to their ancestors and descendants as much as to them- selves, who have little regard for writing and book learning, who regulate marriage closely, and live in family units with little support from outside except for a few specialties like iron- smithing. Znaniecki wrote the classic discussion; Macfarlane searched for peasants in Britain. Macfarlane, Alan 1978 _THE ORIGINS OF ENGLISH INDIVIDUALISM: The Family, Property and Social Transition_. Basil Blackwell. 1979 New York: Cambridge University Press. Peasant: Agriculture, family is production unit. Land belongs to the lineage, is not subject to sale or division among heirs. No labor market; the family members work for the family's welfare, not for money. Little or no money at all. Marriage is almost universal, status of women is low but their work is important. Family is large to pro- vide workers. "Yet the search for the origins has been taken back ... [to 1200] without finding the roots of the peculiar set of inter-related features which have been isolated." (p. 206) :HDI The United Nations began compiling a Human Development Index a few years ago. It is recompiled annually. The version that I used is on pp. 351-352 of Paul Kennedy's PREP21* . School en- rollment data are from p. 142-143 of _The 1993 Information Please Almanac_, which dates them as of 1990 and credits the UN. Here is a little more detail: INCOME HDI Enrollment $0-499 16 0.0-0.19 13 0-19% 67 $500-999 21 0.2-0.29 14 20-39% 7 $1000-4999 59 0.3-0.39 13 40-59% 17 $5000-9999 14 0.4-0.49 11 60-79% 10 $10,000 up 19 0.5-0.59 11 80-100% 36 0.6-0.69 8 0.7-0.79 21 0.8-0.89 12 0.9-0.99 34 Not reporting enrollment: Canada, USA, all of Europe, etc.
[Mind-Culture Coevolution Home] [Contents]
[1 History] [2 Ranks] [3 Energetics] [4 Informatics]
[5 Politics] [6 Investment] [7 Appropriate] [8 Best They Could]
[Bibliography] [Figures] [Notes]