| Mind-Culture Coevolution home

            Copyright (c) 1991, 1993 by David G. Hays
                      (c) 1995 by Janet Hays

                         LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 2.1. Characteristics of the Ranks:  Lore, Practice, Engi-
          neering, Systemics

Fig. 2.2. Paideias:  Chronologies listing a few significant
          events in some of Naroll's paideias, omitting the

Fig. 3.1. Energy Summary:  Innovations in order by date of most
          significant event, most recent at top.

Fig. 3.2  Ergonomics in Rank 1

Fig. 3.3  Ergonomics in Rank 2

Fig. 3.4  Steam Engines:  Chronology, with events attributed to
          rank 2, 3, or 4.

Fig. 3.5  Ergonomics in Rank 3

Fig. 3.6  Ergonomics in Rank 3++

Fig. 4.1  Chronology of calculation.

Fig. 5.1  Legitimation of Polity by Rank

Fig. 5.2  Growth Curves for Governance

Fig. 5.3  Types of Polity by Rank

Fig. 6.1  Investment:  Chronology from Earliest Times through
          Most of the Nineteenth Century.

Sources for facts in the figures


       Fig. 2.1 -- Characteristics of the Ranks

Rank 1


   Thinking is analogous to action.
   Child learns from parent by example.
   Skills belong to families.
   An innovation is an intuitive leap.

Rank 1.5

   Ideas from one craft applied in another.

Rank 2

   LORE            PRACTICE

   Apprenticeship  Thinking is at the level of 1st order
   opens crafts    relations over actions.  Each culture
   to recruits.    makes its own choice of relations.
                   Handbooks summarize as much as can be
                   put into words.
                   Some teaching of technology is from books.
                   Contemplation of written descriptions
                   leads to new methods.

Rank 2.5

                   Knowledge from natural philosophy is
                   acquired by practitioners.
                   Renaissance is the first time application
                 is fruitful.

Rank 3

   LORE            PRACTICE        ENGINEERING

   Elementary      Supervisors in  Thinking is at the level of
   education       advanced        2nd order relations:
   produces        industry  keep  Causality, in the West.
   trainable       records of
   workers, who    operations.     Arithmetic and experiment
   acquire a                       guide development of new
   little lore on  Innovations     devices and processes.
   the job.        are reported
                   in written      Innovation is deliberate.
   Craft skills    media.
   are necessary
   in biological
   fields (both
   and medicine).

Rank 3.5                           Knowledge obtained by science
                                   is taught to engineers.

Rank 4


                   Computer        Thinking is at the level of
                   models help     3rd order relations.
                   operation  and
                   installation    Theories of particular
                   of systems.     cases are created for
                                   control and innovation.


                 Fig. 2.2 -- Paideias

        Chronologies listing a few significant events in
        some of Naroll's paideias, leaving only the West-
        ern for a later chapter.


-4000   Irrigated agriculture

-2500   Cities appear; writing (RN: paideia starts)

-2300   Hammurabi's law code

 -609   End of Assyrian Empire (Toynbee).  Necho II of Egypt con-
        quers Palestine-Syria; Battle of Megiddo; CHW 155  (RN:
        paideia ends -600)

 -539   Babylonia incorporated in Achaemenian Empire and serves
        as its economic base


-4000   Crafts

-3500   Calendar

-3000   Writing; Old Kingdom  (RN: paideia starts)

-2000   Libraries

 -605   Battle of Carchemish; Egyptians under Necho, defeated by
        Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II, retreat to Egypt.
        CHW 155, TTHy  (RN: paideia ends -600)


-6000   Agriculture of simplest kind

-2700   Agriculture

-2000   Astronomy; writing

-1500   Sinic civilization

 -600   First period of Chinese literature ends.  TTHy  (RN:
        paideia starts)

 -551   Confucius born.  Traditional date.  FW, CHW 108


-1000   David becomes king of united Judah and Israel, with
        Jerusalem as capital; returns Ark of Covenant and Deca-
        logue to the city.  He rules most of Palestine and Trans-
        jordan.  Saul's brief rule ends in defeat.  TTHy, CHW 137

 -900   King Asa of Judah acts against the worship of gods other
        than Yahweh; development of heroic legend in Greece and
        among the Israelites; biography of David, Hebrew histori-
        ography.  CHW 137 (RN:  Start)

        Extant writings of Prophets of Israel and Judah; through
        6th or 5th century.

 -608   Nebuchadnezzar II makes Judah tributary; beginning of
        Babylonian Captivity (Lamentations of Jeremiah); Josiah
        ends rule in Judah.  TTHy (RN: paideia ends -600)

 -586   Nebuchadnezzar's Neo-Babylonian Empire destroys Jerusalem
        and liquidates the Kingdom of Judah


-2000   Greeks move from Caspian Sea to eastern Mediterranean. 
        Through -1000.  TTHy

-1300   Volkerwanderung of north-west-Greek-speaking war bands
        into the Aegean Civilization's domain.  Through -1100. 

 -780   Alphabetic writing begins in Greece (Phoenician alpha-
        bet).  CHW 146

 -650   Greece in the last 75 years has learned coinage from
        Lydia, stone architecture and sculpture from Egypt,
        bronze, and fabric.  EtAC 45

 -593   Solon's reforms in Athens.  CHW 155 (RN: paideia starts

 -400   Golden Age of Athens ends.

  476   Fall of Rome.  (RN: paideia ends 450)


 -500   Ganges civilization acquires iron and coinage from Per-
        sia; adopts Black Polished pottery, and begins expansion
        into all India.  Wheeler, quoted AA 64:890

 -323   Maurya Empire (first universal state in India)  (RN:
        paideia starts -300)

 -273   Emperor Acoka (Asoka) in India; adopts Buddhism in 261,
        rules until -232 Toynbee, CHW 96

 -260   First writing found in India.  HDSI


  600   RN: paideia starts

  622   Muhammad driven out of Mecca.  Arab expansion under Islam
        begins almost immediately.

  661   Umayyad dynasty founded in Damascus.

  750   Abbasid dynasty founded in Baghdad.

  970   Seljuk Turks enter Persia.

 1055   Seljuk Turks take Baghdad.

 1290   Ottoman Turks originate as a war band.

 1393   Tamerlane ravages Baghdad.

 1918   Ottoman Empire broken up.

 1341   Ivan I Kalita becomes Grand Duke of Russia and founds the
        Muscovite state.  CHW 463, TTHy.  (RN: paideia starts

 1483   The Russians begin to explore Siberia.  TTHy

 1556   Russia (Muscovy) takes Kazan and Astrakhan; peasants move
        in and their old lands are taken by Germans.  CHW 463,
        FBCC 102

 1598   Conquest of Siberia complete; begun 1581.  TTHy

 1638   Russian fur traders reach the Pacific Ocean.  ACSD.  They
        "advance the frontier of Orthodox Christendom to the
        coast of the Pacific at Okhotsk."  Toynbee

 1689   Peter I the Great becomes tsar of Russia.  Interested in
        shipbuilding, western technology; accelerating effort to
        modernize Russia.  ACSD, MMIA 126

 1917   Communist Revolution.


                  Fig. 3.1 - Energy Summary

     In order by main date (when the most significant
     innovation occurred), most recent at top.

Early  Main 1   2   3   4

 1957  1968         3 - 4  Manned spaceflight

 1952  1965         3 - 4  Commercial jet

 1948  1964         3      Mechanization of coal mining:  Second

 1955  1962         3 - 4  Gas turbine, nuclear power for ships

 1950  1960         3      Mechanization of farming

 1945  1960         3 - 4  Nuclear power

 1934  1950         3      Diesel power for railroads

 1914  1944         3 - 4  Unmanned rockets

 1930  1941         3 - 4  Military jet

 1932  1940         3 - 4  Artificial fertilizers

 1920  1940         3      Electrification of farms

 1930  1935         3 - 4  Catalytic cracking

 1912  1930         3      Diesel power for ships

 1863  1924         3      Mechanization of coal mining:  First

 1907  1922         3      Gasoline refinery

 1886  1920         3      Gasoline engine

 1897  1918         3 - 4  Electrochemistry and metallurgy

 1890  1915         3      Tractors

 1879  1915         3      Electrification of railroads

 1903  1914         3      Gasoline engine for airplanes

 1884  1910         3      Steam turbines

 1897  1904         3      Steam turbine for ships

 1875  1895         3      Automobile

 1830  1884         3      Electric motors

 1859  1880     2 - 3      Petroleum wells

 1858  1880         3      Electric lighting

 1866  1877         3      Dynamite

 1850  1870     2 - 3      Installation:  Steam railroads

 1780  1860     2 - 3      Coal gas engine

 1807  1850     2 - 3      Stationary steam engines on farms

 1750  1850     2 - 3      Coal mining grows

 1827  1840     2 - 3      Water turbine

 1769  1833     2 - 3      Steam carriages

 1804  1830     2 - 3      Feasibility of steam railroads

 1785  1825     2 - 3      Steam power for factories

 1800  1820         3      Electromagnetism

 1775  1810     2 - 3      Watt steam engine

 1760  1810     2 - 3      Gas lighting

 1736  1807     2 - 3      Steam power for ships

 1730  1750     2 - 3      Static electricity

       1742         3      Franklin stove

 1698  1712     2          Newcomen steam engine

 1600  1709     2          Coke for iron smelting

 1200  1400     2          Coal as fuel

       1430     2          Sailing ships

 1248  1320     2          Gunpowder

  800  1200 1 - 2          Fireplace

 1000  1100 1 - 2          Complex waterwheel

        800 1 - 2          Horsecollar

 -100   400     2          Simple waterwheel

-2500  -200 1 - 2          Basic animal power

-2500       1 - 2          Sailboat

 -370k -4k  1              Fire


               Figure 3.2 - Rank 1 Erogonomics

             Plants    Animals   Fire      Human

     Plants  Seed      Oxygen    Oxygen    Oxygen
             Compost   Food      Fuel      Food

     Animals Carbon    Offspring           Food
             dioxide   Food                Clothing

     Fire    Carbon                        Heat
             dioxide                       Light

     Human   Carbon                        Offspring
             dioxide                       Transport


               Figure 3.3 - Rank 2 Ergonomics

             Weather Plants  Animals Coal Fire  Machine Human

Weather              Water                      Power
Plants               Seeds   Oxygen       OxygenMatter  Oxygen
                     Compost Food         Fuel          Food
Animals              Carbon  Off-               Power   Food
                     dioxide spring                     Clothing
                     Manure  Food                       Transport
Coal                                      Fuel
Fire                 Carbon                             Heat
                     dioxide                            Light
Machine              Plowing                            Food
Human                Care    Care               Control Offspring
                     Carbon                     Power


                  Fig. 3.4 - Steam Engines

Year Rank 4

1964 Turbogenerators can use as little as 0.5 kg of coal per kwh. 
     SHTC 69. Electrical generators use 0.86 pounds per kwh. 
     Average cost for residential use, $0.0231 per kwh.  TWC2 249

1963 Turbogenerator with million kW capacity. SHTC 68

1959 May: Saturated steam produced by nuclear reactor fed back
     into the reactor to produce dry steam at high temperature to
     drive a turbine.  Vallecitos, USA.  TWC2 272-273

1951 Steam  turbo-generators, 125,000    kW, 1500 lb/sq in, 565
     C.  Sewaren, NJ.  SHTC 173

1950 Typical thermal efficiency of steam turbines, 30-35%.  SHTC

Year Rank 3

1940 The working life of steam condensers in  British warships
     (using sea water) has increased from 6 months to 7 years
     since 1914, thanks to use of traces of arsenic and aluminum
     in the brass (copper-zinc) alloy.  SHTC 187

1933 Battersea power station,  London.  105 mW turbogenerator,
     biggest in Europe.  SHTC 68

1911 Charles Parsons, turbogenerator operating at 4000 rpm.  TToT

1909 Vespasian launched, a cargo ship with reduction gear to
     permit high turbine speed and low propellor speed.  SHTC
     174, TToT

1904 Carville power station, Newcastle 6000 kW turbogenerators,
     use 2 kg of coal per kwh. SHTC 68

1903 Under-feed automatic coal stoker.  TWC2 227

Year Rank 2

     A Cornish beam engine, 173 cm cylinder, built for Dorothea
     slate quarry, North Wales.  HInv 162

          Rank 3

1902      Wilhelm Schmidt, steam superheaters for railway locomo-
          tives.  Germany.  TToT

          Electrical generators use 7 pounds of coal per kwh. 
          Average cost for residential use, $0.162 per kwh.  TWC2

1900      Charles Parsons supplies 2 1500 kw steam turbogenerat-
          ors to Elberfeld, Germany.  Biggest in world; axial
          flow.  Use 8.3 kg of coal per killowatt hour.  HInv
          163, SHTC 68

1899      Britain makes steam engines up to 180 hp, up to 100
          rpm.  Up to 3000 hp.  Thermal efficiency over 20% in
          big triple-expansion engines.  Hnv 162

Year Rank 3

1898 Wilhelm Schmidt, superheated steam in locomotive engine to
     reduce condensation loss.  Kassel, Germany.  HInv 178

1896 Curtis, steam turbine.  USA.  WA

1889 Patent troubles cause Parsons to try radial flow in steam
     turbines.  HInv 163

     Leon Serpollet, flash boiler to permit quick starting of
     steam engines.  France. TWC2 123

1888 C. A. Parsons's "first turbo-alternator--operating at 4800
     revolutions a minute--was installed in the Forth Banks
     power-station in Britain ..."  SHTC 64

1887 Gustav de Laval, steam turbine; jet against vanes on a
     wheel, similar to Branca (1629). Useful for small machines. 
     HInv 163

Year Rank 3

1884 Sir Charles Algernon Parsons, first workable compound
     (multiple-wheel) steam turbine; for ships.  18,000 rpm. 
     This one is axial flow: Stator with rows of vanes inside;
     rotor, vanes alternate to stator.  Britain. FW, WA, CHW 849,
     HInv 162

1883 Gustav de Laval, a workable but inefficient steam turbine. 
     SHTC 170

1880 Triple-expansion steam engine.  SHTC 252

1874 Charles Brotherhood builds reciprocating steam engines to
     run at 1000 rpm.  England. HInv 162

1863 Steam engines 168 hp, 350 rpm, built at Philadelphia.  Built
     under license in England 20 years later.  HInv 162

1845 John McNaught, steam engine with a high- pressure, short--
     stroke cylinder.  HInv 161

Year Rank 3

1841 John Nixon, steam-powered air pumps for ventilation in  a
     mine, South Wales. HInv 183

1836 Eliphalet Nott, boiler heated with anthracite coal  for
     steamboats; 50% cost saving against wood.  N&BP 208

1834 Patent to J. G. Bodmer for traveling grate for boilers. 
     MTCo 87

     Lancashire and the textile area of Yorkshire have 1400 steam
     engines.  HInv 162

1825 Sep 17:  "I do not give Mr. Watt any credit for his gover-
     nors or centrifugal regulators of valves, as some have done. 
     The principle was borrowed from the patents of my late 
     friend Mead, who, long before Mr. Watt had adapted the plan
     to his steam-engine, had regulated the mill-sails in this
     neighbour- hood upon that precise principle, and which con-
     trived to be so regulated to this day." Dr. Alderson,
     Mechanics Magazine.  SHEg 85

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1825 Horizontal steam engines appear, as builders realize that
     uneven wear does not result. HInv 162

1824 Sadi Carnot, _Reflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu_. 
     Theoretical maximum efficiency for heat engine.  HInv 162

1819 Oliver Evans dies, age 64, prosperous but disappointed.  In
     15 years he has built 50 steam engines.  [Mars Works has
     sold almost 100.]  His high-pressure engine has been copied
     using his description, and modified into a "noncondensing,
     direct-acting, horizontal-cylinder affair with cam-action
     gear." Louis Hunter, quoted N&BP 83; HInv 161, TIAm 35

1812 Oliver Evans offers high-pressure steam engine equal to 24
     horses; can grind 240 bushels of grain in 12 hours.  New
     Castle County, Delaware.  TIAm 18

1811 Dec 21:  Oliver Evans to Timothy Pitkin: I discovered the
     powerful principles of the high-pressure steam engine in
     1775.  N&BP 82, 270

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1811 Oliver Evans sends his son George to Pittsburgh to build
     high-pressure steam engines. N&BP 83

1810 Trevithick returns to Cornwall and designs a higher pressure
     steam engine.  SHEg 112

          Nicholas Roosevelt starts a machine shop in Pittsburgh
          to build steam engines for river boats.  Moved from NJ. 
          N&BP 81

1807 Olinthus Gregory, _Treatise of Mechanics_. Describes Oliver
     Evans's high-pressure steam engines.  Author teaches mathe-
     matics at Woolwich.  HInv 161

          J.B.J.Fourier begins mathematical work on heat conduc-
          tion in solids.  He is Prefect at Isere, France.  SSCB

1806 Oliver Evans, Mars Works, to build steam engines.  TIAm 35

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1805 USA Congress declines to renew Oliver Evans's patents.  To
     earn money, he publishes prematurely _The Abortion of the
     Young Steam Engineer's Guide._  TIAm 35

1804 Oliver Evans builds a high-pressure steam engine to operate
     at 8 atmospheres.  Double-acting cylinder, 15 cm diameter, 
     20 cm stroke, 30 rpm.  Cylinder and crankshaft under same
     end of beam.  Straight-line linkage for upper end of piston. 
     HInv 161, InAm 54

          Oliver Evans, _Young Steam Engineeer's Guide_.  MTCo 82

1803 Arthur  Woolf,  Watt  engine with high and low-pressure
     cylinders in cascade.  Cornish mining engineer.  HInv 161

          William  Freemantle,  grasshopper engine, steam, no
          beam.  HInv 161

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1802 Richard Trevithick builds a steam engine to work at 10
     atmospheres; boiler wall 4 cm thick; cylinder 18 cm diame-
     ter, piston stroke 1 m.  Coalbrookdale.  HInv 160.  He
     builds a "whirling engine":  Steam at 7 atmospheres jets
     from ends of 4.5 m spinning tube.  HInv 162

1800 500 steam engines from the factory of Matthew Boulton and
     Thomas Watt have been installed.  RatW 24

          "With the  coming  of  steam, the pace of the West in-
          creased as if by magic.  But the magic can be ex-
          plained: it had been prepared and made possible in
          advance."  FBCC 1:372

1799 Matthew Murray patents improvements in the steam engine: 
     The short D-slide valve, cast-iron overhead beam, etc.  18CI

1798 Benjamin Thompson, _Enquiry Concerning the Source of Heat
     Which is Excited by Friction, to Royal Society.  Heat a form
     of motion.  FW 23:135

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1797 Edmund Cartwright builds a steam engine with alcohol 
     replacing water and a stuffing box with metallic packing.
     Not successful.  18CI

1792 Edward Bull builds direct-acting steam engine, placing 
     cylinder directly over pump rod so as to eliminate  the 
     great beam.  Sued by James Watt.  18CI

1791 John Barber, gas turbine.  Britain.  FW

          John Stevens tells his mechanic John Hall to begin con-
          struction of a high-pressure double-acting steam engine
          with cork piston and wooden cogs.  TIAm 42

          German engineer Georg Reichenbach visits Soho to spy on
          Boulton and Watt.  RatW 25-26

1788 James Watt, centrifugal flyball governor.  Controls the
     throttle valve.  Albion Mills installation completed.  Great
     Britain.  FW, 18CI, HInv 160 SHEg 90

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1785 J. Rennie begins millwork for a Watt rotative beam engine
     with governor and throttle, for Albion Flour Mills.  SHEg

1784 James Watt, parallel motion for steam engines; steam intro-
     duced on both sides of piston.

1783 Thomas Mead, centrifugal governor for windmills.  As speed
     increases the upper grindstone tends to rise; the governor
     keeps the gap uniform.  Great Britain.  18CI.  Patents it,
     1787.  SHEg 85.  This is true feedback.

1781 Jonathan Carter Hornblower, compound steam engine.  Some
     built and sold, but harried by James Watt. 18CI

          First continuously operating steam engine in Germany
          installed.  75 hp.  Runs until 1845.  RatW 7

1778 137 steam engines have been built in the coal fields of
     Tyneside.  SHEg 87

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1777 The first Watt low-pressure engine begins operating at Wheel
     Busy, Chacewater.  Reduces coal consumption by 2/3  to 3/4
     from Newcomen type.  SHEg 90

1776 Boulton and Watt found a factory.  Watt offers engines  for
     sale.  RatW 3, TIAm 18

     "Matthew Boulton was delighted when John Wilkinson bored him
     a cylinder for a large steam-engine 'almost without  Error 
     ... [it] doth not err the thickness of an old shilling in no
     part'."  SHTC 180

1775 Jun 1:  Watt and Boulton sign a 25-year agreement after 
     patent extension granted.  SHEg 89, HInv 159

     Feb 23:  Boulton applies for a 25-year extension of   Watt's
     patent.  SHEg 89, HInv 159

     James Watt demonstrates his steam engine; cuts fuel use by
     2/3 from Newcomen's requirement; sales are good.  18CI

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1775 Oliver Evans "discovered the powerful principles of my
     [high-pressure] engines", as he writes later.  N&BP 82

1774 Nov:  Matthew Boulton and James Watt set up a steam engine
     at Soho, near Birmingham, England.  The engine from Kinneil
     House is working again.  RatW 23, SHEg 89

     James Watt builds full-scale rotary steam engine. 18CI

     John Wilkinson obtains a patent, later revoked, for a 
     cannon-boring machine later used to make cylinders for James
     Watt's steam engines.  18CI, SHEg 85

          Second Newcomen engine in America pumps water for
          public supply in New York.  TIAm 17

1773 Watt's development work bankrupts John Roebuck; Matthew
     Boulton, with business acumen, takes Roebuck's share.  The
     first engine did not work well enough, the mines flooded. 
     Watt moves to Birmingham.  SHEg 89

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1772 Dec:  Oliver Evans learns of a trick:  Water in a gunbarrel
     drives out a wadding when heated.  He conceives   of high-
     -pressure steam power.  Age 17.  TIAm 32

1770 John Smeaton improves the design of beam engines.  Old
     efficiency is 2540 tons of water raised 30 cm for 38 kg of
     coal burned.  Better boring and other improvements double
     this--to 1%.  Engine with 2 m cylinder for pumping out the
     docks at Kronstadt.  HInv 159

1769 Apr 29:  James Watt enrolls in the High Court of Chancery 
     "a particular description" of his steam engine  with 
     separate condenser.  Also a steam jacket around the cylinder
     and a stuffing box for the piston rod; the piston is driven
     by steam, not air pressure.  Devises a rotary steam  engine. 
     Britain.  FW, 18CI, SHEg 89, RatW 18, HInv 158-9

          Jan 5:  George III grants a patent to James Watt for a
          steam engine.  RatW 18, CHW 823

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1768 Watt steam engine, financed by John Roebuck, set up at
     Kinneil House, near Edinburgh.  Called Beelzebub.  SHEg 89

1767 Matthew Boulton proposes to become Watt's partner, but
     refuses general partnership.  SHEg 89

1766 William Blakey, improvements on Newcomen's steam engine.
     Later, a water-tube boiler.  18CI

     Matthew Boulton asks Benjamin Franklin and Erasmus Darwin
     about a Newcomen engine for a factory.  SHEg 89

1765 James Watt, working as an instrument maker at Glasgow
     University in association with Joseph Black, who studies
     heat in chemical reactions, sees the Newcomen steam engine
     that he is asked to repair as a heat engine and decides to
     separate the condenser.  18CI and others

     William Westgarth builds a water pressure engine to pump
     water out of a lead mine in Northumberland.  18CI

Year Rank 2 to Rank 3

1764 Watt notices  two  salient defects in the Newcomen engine. 
     Fuel is burned to reheat the cylinder after each stroke. 
     Condensation of steam is not efficient.  SHEg 88

1763 James Watt is asked to repair a Newcomen engine at    
     University of Glasgow.  HInv 159

1755 First Newcomen steam engine in America installed at a copper
     mine in Newark, NJ. TIAm 18, SHEg  87, HInv 161

1753 First Newcomen engine shipped to USA.  HInv 161

1739 Jacob Leupold, _Theatrum Machinarium Generale_.  Last of 9
     volumes published.  One includes a design for a high-pres-
     sure noncondensing steam engine; probably not built.   HInv

1737 Martin Triewald, who helped construct a Newcomen steam
     engine at Newcastle, returns to Sweden to build one at
     Dannemora.  SHEg 81

Year Rank 2

1732 Newcomen engine raises water to drive a waterwheel at
     Coalbrookdale Ironworks.  SHEg 86

1729 Newcomen dies.  His engine is in use in Hungary, France,
     Belgium, etc.  HInv 159

1724 Jacob Leupold publishes  proposal to build a      steam en-
     gine, with a   piston and no vacuum.     Probably never
     used;     too difficult to build   at the time.  18CI

1722 Isaac Potter is invited to construct a Newcomen steam engine
     for mine drainage at Konigsberg.  SHEg 81

1718 At some date since 1713, Newcomen's steam engines have been
     fitted with automatic valve gears.  SHEg 81

Year Rank 2

1712 After ten years work, "Thomas Newcomen, a Devonshire iron-
     monger" built a "successful atmospheric steam engine" [MRTe
     129].  "contemporaries were as much surprised as we that a
     provincial craftsman who lacked all contact with, or knowl-
     edge of, the Savery engine or the scientific researches on
     which Savery's work was based, could have solved such a
     problem" [MRTe 130].

          Ironmonger and blacksmith at Dartmouth, Devonshire,
          Great Britain.  Asked to advise on maintenance of a
          Savery steam pump in Cornwall.  The first atmospheric
          (steam beam piston pumping) engine was erected at a
          colliery near Dudley Castle, Staffordshire (a mine near
          Birmingham) (Worcestershire) [HInv 158].  Early cylin-
          ders cast of brass.  Collaborated with Savery, who had
          patented all means of raising water by fire!  [18CI]. 
          Ran at 12 strokes per minute, raised 540 litres (120
          gallons) of water a minute over 46 m = 153'.  5 hp. 
          Overall thermal efficiency of 0.5%. SHEg 81, HInv 159,
          TIAm 17

Year Rank 2

1712 Thomas Savery installs a steam pump at Campden House, Ken-
     sington, which raises 3000 gallons an hour.  Others at Syon
     House and mines in Cornwall and Staffordshire. SHEg 80.  One
     for York Buildings Water Works Company, London, which fails. 
     SHEg 81, HInv 157

1711 Thomas Newcomen begins constructing steam engines.  RatW 20

          Company of the Proprietors of the Invention for Raising
          Water by Fire is formed; Savery and Newcomen.  SHEg 80

1707 Denis Papin designs a steam pump: steam enters a chamber,
     driving water out; steam condenses, drawing water in. Works,
     uneconomically.  RatW 15

1706 Denis Papin demonstrates a large steam engine before Karl,
     Landgrave of Hesse, at Cassel. RatW 14.  Other tests drive
     water to a height of 100'.  RatW 15

Year Rank 2

1705 Thomas Newcomen, steam engine.  Britain. FW.  See 1712.

          Denis Papin, having seen a sketch of Savery's steam
          pump (Leibnitz gave it to him), makes one work on his
          1695 plan, with a piston.  He adds a safety valve.
          18CI, RatW 15

1702 Savery advertises engine for sale, Salisbury Court, London. 
     HInv 158

1701 Thomas Savery, _The Miner's Friend_. Includes a description
     of his steam pump.

1699 Thomas Savery demonstrates a steam engine to Royal Society. 
     SHEg 80

Year Rank 2

1698 Jul 25: Captain Thomas Savery receives first patent for
     engine for raising water "by the impellent Force of Fire".
     He also suggests steam power for various machines. No longer
     a laboratory model but a working pump. No piston; direct
     pressure on water. Requires high pressure. Failed because
     metal could not take the pressure he needed.  Single boiler
     separate from receiver. Maximum lift 25 feet.  Great Brit-
     ain.  MRTe 129, 18CI, HInv 144, 157

          Denis Papin writes to Leibnitz:  "I have built a small
          model of a cart which can be driven by this [steam]
          power."  RatW16

1697 Denis Papin invents a machine to raise water from mines by
     the force of fire.  At Cassell.  SHEg 79

1696 Denis Papin, professor of mathematics at Marburg, Germany,
     suggests using expansion and contraction of steam to form a
     partial vacuum below a piston; air pressure would drive the
     piston down when the steam condensed.

Year Rank 2

1690 Denis Papin publishes his first design for a steam (atmo-
     spheric) engine; Water boiled in 7.5 cm cylinder forces a
     piston up. Cylinder evacuated by condensation of steam. Huy-
     gens's assistant; also worked with Boyle on air pump.  RatW
     14, HInv 156

1683 Sir Samuel Morland proposes to Louix XIV a steam-powered
     machine to lift water. RatW 12

1675 Huygens introduces Denis Papin to Robert Boyle.  SHEg 79

1666 Christiaan Huygens proposes to Colbert of France a compar-
     ison of gunpowder and steam power.  RatW 12

1663 The second Marquis of Worcester obtains a patent from
     Parliament for a steam-driven water pump.  He has built a
     machine at Vauxhall that raises water 40'.  SHEg 71

1661 Otto von Guericke shows that a piston driven by air pressure
     into an evacuated cylinder can do work.  RatW 12

Year Rank 2

1657 Kasper Schott, _Mechanica-Hydraulica-Pneumatica_.  Describes
     Otto von Guericke's work with vacuum.  Read by Robert Boyle. 
     SHEg 65

1655 Edward Somerset, Marquis of Worcester, _Century of Inven-
     tions_.  He made a steam engine that threw a jet of water
     40'.  RatW 12

1654 Otto von Guericke demonstrates atmospheric pressure. He
     exhausts two hollow bronze hemispheres, 50 cm diameter,
     through a stop-cock and harnesses a team of 8 horses to
     each; they cannot pull them apart.  Establishes the power of
     a vacuum. Before the Imperial Diet at Ratisbon.  The `Magde-
     burger Windbuchse' became one of the technical wonders of
     the day. Also a piston in a vertical cylinder vs. a team of
     50 men.  Magdeburg.  SHEg 65, HInv 156, MRTe 52

Year Rank 2

1643 Evangelista Torricelli, Galileo's assistant, shows that the
     atmosphere has pressure, and that it equals that of a column
     of water 9 m high, or mercury 76 cm high.  He predicts that
     at higher altitudes the columns are shorter. Barometer.
     Italy.  HInv 156, MRTe 129, FW

1630 David Ramsay patents a steam engine. Great Britain.  RatW
     12.  To drain mines.  SHEg 71

1629 Giovanni Branca, a small rolling mill powered by the heat
     rising from a forge.  MRTe 49.  A wheel spun by jets of
     steam impinging on vanes.  HInv 162

1615 De Caus, _The Reasons for the Moving Forces in Different
     Machines_, Frankfurt.  He works for the Palatinate Princes
     at Heidelberg.  His design for a steam engine, a steam ball
     or aeolipile with a turbine wheel.  RatW 11

1606 Giambattista della Porta proposes "to raise water by steam
     alone"  MRTe 128

Year Rank 2

1601 Baptista Porta describes a machine for raising a column of
     water by condensing steam to create a vacuum into which the
     water flows.  SHEg 71

(?)  Hero, or Heron, of Alexandria, was active at an uncertain
     date between the first century B.C. and the third century
     A.D. His aelopile was a rotary steam engine.  ITIH 1, SHEg
     27, HInv 68; also HTIn, RatW, FW

          The Greeks and Romans were familiar with all the basic
          components of a low-pressure steam engine: piston in a
          cylinder, flap valve; steam boiler. "That they failed
          to assemble these ... was probably due to the fact that
          there was at that time no particular need for it ..." 
          HInv 68


                 Figure 3.5 - Rank 3 Ergonomics

           Weather Plants  Animals Coal Fire    Machine Human

Weather            Water                        Power
Plants             Seeds   Oxygen       Oxygen  Matter  Oxygen
                   Compost Food         Fuel            Food
Animals            Carbon  Off-                         Food
                   dioxide spring                         
                   Manure  Food
Coal                                    Fuel
Fire               Carbon                       Power   Heat
                   dioxide                              Light
Machine                            Extrac-              Food
                                   tion                 Clothing
Human              Care    Care                 Control Offspring
                   Carbon                       Power


                Figure 3.6 - Rank 3++ Ergonomics

             Plants  Animals Fossil Fire   Machine Human

Weather      Water                         Power
Plants       Seeds   Oxygen         Oxygen Matter  Oxygen
             Compost Food           Fuel           Food
Animals      Carbon  Off-                          Food
             dioxide spring                        Clothing
             Manure  Food
Fossil                              Fuel   Matter
Fire         Carbon                        Power   Heat
Machine      Ferti-  Off-    Extrac-               Food
             lizer   spring  tion                  Clothing
             Tillage Care                          Shelter
             Harvest                               Transport
Human        Care    Care                  Control Offspring
                     Carbon                        Power


              Fig. 4.1 - CHRONOLOGY OF CALCULATION

 1617  Henry Briggs, modern decimal system.  FW 2:259

 1478  First printed arithmetic book.  FW 2:259

 1345  In Lucca a new school teaches the abacus.  [HTIn 570]

 1338  In Florence a new school teaches the abacus.  [HTIn 570]

 1310  In Genoa, a new school teaches the abacus, making numbers
       more popular.  [HTIn 570]

 1202  Leonard of Pisa (Leonardo Fibonacci), _Liber abaci_, popu-
       larizes Moslem numbers in Italy.  Hindu numerals and posi-
       tional reckoning relayed from India to Europe by way of
       Islam.  MRTe 54, SHEg 54

 11??  al-Khwarizmi's book on decimal notation translated into

  850? al-Khwarizmi dies.  FW 2:259

  780  al-Khwarizmi born.  FW 2:259

  1??  Hindus develop decimal notation for numbers.  They were
       aware of Babylonian and Greek arithmetic.  FW 2:258-259

 -5??  Pythagoras adds, subtracts, and multiplies graphically. 

-1700  Ahmes, a scribe:  _Directions for Obtaining the Knowledge
       of all Dark Things_; papyrus handbook of arithmetic. 
       Egypt.  Copied from sources as old as -3000.  FW 2:258

-3000  Base-60 notation for numbers.  Place-value system.  Aba-
       cus.  Babylonia.  FW 2:258


            Fig. 5.1 - Legitimation of Polity by Rank


4                                                        ???
3                                     Rationality--Relativism
2                        Abstract God __ Ideology or
                         Elects King     Revealed Truth
1   Kinship and    -- God-king


             Fig. 5.2 - Growth Curves for Governance

 4                                                 __________
                                   Democracy      /
 3                                    \__________/
                                      /    |    |
                    Colonial empire--/  Welfare United
                      Nation-state--/   State   Nations
 2                     __________/
                      /|   |
       Church-state--/ |   Ancient Empire
     Petty kingdom--/  |
         Chiefdom--/   City-state
 1     __________/
       |  |    |
       | Band Tribe


               Fig. 5.3 - Types of Polity by Rank 


1    Nuclear  2-12      Residen-  Parental authority over 
     family             ce; sus-  children; typically 
                        tenance;  male authority over fe- 
                        bearing   male; kinship

1    Band     12-200    Almost no Individuals respected 
                        authori-  for special skills or 
                        ty; may   the wisdom of age; kin- 
                        arrange   ship is assumed for the 
                        hunts or  entire band
                        control a

1    Tribe    Thousands           Clans, age-grade societies, or
                                  or other associations with
                                  members in all bands; kinship
                                  is assumed for the entire band.

1.2  Village  25-200    Food      Leadership varies from
                        sharing;  specialists for hunts,
                        collec-   ceremonies, and fights through
                        tive      the big man who is esteemed in
                        agreement general to the village chief
                        to move   with power legitimized   by
                        the whole kinship

1.4  Chief-   1000-     Chief     The paramount chief has many
     dom      10,000    assigns   wives and retainers; each
                        social    village has a chief responsible
                        rank,     to him; kinship or the
                        controls  sponsorship of some god or gods
                        rites  &  gives legitimacy
                        and may
                        taxes in
                        kind and
                        labor for

1.6  Petty    5,000-    Inter-    Three levels of administrative
     kingdom  500,000   ference   hierarchy: State, district, and
                        in many   village.  Codified laws in some
                        aspects   instances; claim to authority
                        of life,  of a god or gods
                        tioned by

1.8  Church-  100,000   Similar   Four levels of administrative
     state    to 1 M    to petty  hierarchy:  Empire, province,
                        kingdom   district, and  village or town;
                                  codified laws, systematic
                                  recruitment of officers; claim
                                  to authority of a god or gods

2    City-    5,000  to Organiza- One or two levels of
     state    100,000   tion of   administrative hierarchy for
                        produc-   the central place and for
                        tion and  villages in the hinterland;
                        commerce; codified laws; legitimation by
                        regula-   participation of citizens in
                        tion of   legislation and recruitment of
                        marriage; officials
                        and laws;

2    Ancient  Millions            Four (or more) levels  of
     Empire                       administrative hierarchy;
                                  codified laws; legitimation by
                                  participation of citizens or an
                                  elite  council in legislation
                                  and recruitment of officials

2.2  Monarchy 100,000             Two or three levels of
              to 1 M              administrative hierarchy;
                                  codified laws; legitimation by
                                  the spirit of the people

2.4  Nation-  1  to 100 Organiza- Three or four levels of
     state    million   tion of   administrative hierarchy;
                        educa-    codified laws; legitimation by
                        tion;     constitution
                        tion of
                        tion and 
                        of inter-
                        nal crime
                        and war- 

2.6  Modern   100  M to Exploita- Four or more levels of
     Empire   1 B       tion of   administrative hierarchy;
                        backward  codified laws varying  among
                        fringe    colonies; legitimation by
                        for raw   constitution and superiority of
                        materials culture
                        to colonies
                        for admini-
                        and commerce

3    Democ-   Variable  Regula-   Two to four levels of
     racy               tion of   administrative hierarchy;
                        educa-    codified laws; standard
                        tion,     language; legitimation by
                        economy,  reference to functional
                        communi-  requirements of social life as
                        cation,   understood by all educated
                        crime, &  persons

3    Welfare  Variable  Protec-   Legitimation  by  reference  to
     State              tion of   the value of individual persons
                        of pensions

3+   United   Earth     Reduc-    Only partially formed by 1993;
     Nations            tion of   reduction of state sovereignty
                        warfare   may lead to increase in number
                                  of administrative levels; 
                                  legitimation by abhorrence for 


                      Fig. 6.1 - Investment

1864  Cyrus Field, transatlantic cable "without a fault".  First
     abandoned in mid Atlantic; second,  at  a  cost  of  $3 M,
     successful.  SHEg 137 [Perhaps an error of date]

 1860  Industrial production, USA:

     Flour          $249 M
     Cotton         $107 M
     Iron and steel  $73 M.  N&BP 59

     Railway mileage:

     Britain   16,000 km.  HInv 177
     USA       48,000 km.  HInv 178
     Germany     7300 miles.  RatW 55

     Sewing machines:  110,000 sold per year.  HTIA 3, N&BP 152

     The  largest  carriage-makers  produce  40,000  to  50,000
     carriages a year.  Alfred D. Chandler, quoted N&BP 202

 1859  Value   added   by   manufacturing    exceeds   value   of
     agricultural products sold.  CHW 836

 1858  Aug 4:   3rd  attempt to lay transatlantic telegraph cable
     succeeds:   2300  miles.    Queen  Victoria  and President
     Buchanan exchange  greetings.   The cable  ceases to carry
     signals after 3 weeks.   RatW  143.   SHTC 299,  TWC2 325,
     SHEg 137

 1856  Cyrus  West  Field  and  others  found  Atlantic Telegraph
     Company, London.  RatW 143

 1854  Cyrus West Field proposes  transatlantic cable  and founds
     New  York,  Newfoundland  and  London  Telegraph  Company.
     Persuaded by Frederick N.  Gisborne, an  English engineer.
     229 shares  are bought in England at L1000 each; the other
     88 are held by Field.  RatW 143, SHEg 136, TIAm 106

 1850  Investment in railroads, USA:  $370 M.  N&BP 220

     Production, Great Britain:  

     Iron    1.4 M tons.  HInv 153

     Steel  60   k tons.  HInv 186

     Britain consumes 60 M tons of coal per year.  HInv 162

     100 M acres of land cleared for agriculture in USA.  Each
     farmer may clear up to 200 acres in his lifetime. TAHI 72

 1849  Britain has 5000 miles of railway in use, and 7000 more
     sanctioned. Capital has risen from L65 to L200 M. SHEg

 1847  Railway mania peaks in Britain at midcentury. L250 M
     paid-up capital. 250,000 navvies are at work. HInv 177

     Major cities from Portland, ME to Charleston, SC to St.
     Louis, MO linked by telegraph for transmission of news.
     TWC2 325

 1843  1 Jan: Less than 2000 miles of railway in use in Britain.
     Boom begins. SHEg 129

 1837  Samuel  Finley  Breese  Morse patents electromagnetic
     telegraph. Proposal by another for semaphore telegraph,
     New York - New Orleans. Morse sets out to have electric
     instead.  He gets scientific advice  from Leonard  D. Gale
     and mechanical assistance from Alfred Vail.  InAm 63, AmDs
     10, TIAm 103

 1833  Grant,  production  line  for  sea  biscuit.    Except for
     removing  dough  from  kneader,  all  tasks  performed  by
     machines.     Flour  and   water  measured  automatically.
     Deptford Victualling  Office, England.   MTCo  78, 86, 89,

 1831  Jul:  Cyrus Hall McCormick (age 22) demonstrates reaper in
     a neighbor's field of oats, Steeles Tavern, VA; his father
     had worked on the problem for years.   This machine  has 7
     features  still  in  20th  century  machine:    a straight
     reciprocating knife knife to cut the  stalks, iron fingers
     or guards,  a reel to push stalks in, a catching platform,
     main wheel and gearing, front-axle draft traction to drive
     the machinery,  and a  divider to separate standing grain.
     Walnut Grove Farm, VA,  USA.   FW, TIAm  65, 70,  InAm 51,
     TAHI 74

 1829  Cammel  Laird,  a  large  shipbuilder  in  Britain, begins
     building iron ships.  HInv 171

     Britain produces 16 M tons of coal.  SHEg 122

 1827  John H. Hall  has  assembled  machinery  at  Harpers Ferry
     armory:   water-powered drop forge, milling, drilling, and
     profiling machines;  they have  automatic stop mechanisms,
     and formed  cutters; all-metal construction.  With gauges,
     he   achieves    tolerances    at    0.001"    and   makes
     interchangeable parts by 1826.  TAHI 56

 1825  About  75,000  power  looms  and  250,000  hand  looms  in
     Britain, output half and half.  HInv 146

 1823  James  Muspratt  establishs  heavy   chemical  works  near
     Liverpool  for  production  of alkali from salt, sulphuric
     acid, chalk, and coal.  SHEg 107

     Thomas Blanchard, 14  machines  that  completely mechanize
     gunstock making.  Springfield Armory.  N&BP 107

 1822  Dec   30:      John   Hall   can  now  produce  arms  with
     interchangeable parts, employing unskilled workmen.  To do
     so, he introduced fixtures in manufacture.  N&BP 111

 1816  Simeon  North  has  installed  advanced  gun-stocking  and
     barrel-turning machinery at Middletown, CT, where he makes
     some  of  the  small  lock components with a plain milling
     machine.  He makes interchangeable parts for pistol locks.
     TAHI 55

     Baltimore,  MD,  begins  installing  street  lighting with
     manufactured gas; completed 1820.  TWC2 223

     Water circulated in  cast-iron  pipes  to  heat buildings.
     England.  TWC2 227

 1815  Samuel  Slater  has  partnerships  in  20+  mills  on  the
     Pawtucket River.  The rural  scene  is  beginning  to look
     industrial.   Slater's knowledge  of English technology is
     applied from New England to  Philadelphia.    He  tries to
     start an  apprenticeship system, but parents will not send
     their children away.  He hands wives' and children's wages
     to fathers.  N&BP 51

     Early:   Lowell's factory  opens.   Moody continues making
     improvements  in  machines,  and  makes  them   for  sale.
     Waltham, MA.  N&BP 92

 1814  _The Times_ of London adopts the steam-driven Konig press.

     Friedrich  Konig,  sheet-fed   cylinder   printing  press.
     Germany.  FW

     Francis Cabot Lowell builds a large textile factory.  Paul
     Moody designs all the machines.   From cotton  in the bale
     to cloth  of a  single kind.   Young  farm women hired for
     short periods at half of men's  wages, closely chaperoned.
     Waltham, MA.  N&BP 89

 1812  Textile  production  in  Great Britain (Scotland only?) is
     100 times as large as  in  1775;  switched  from  linen to
     cotton.  SSCB 102

 1810  J. R.  Lambert submits  his kneading machine for the prize
     offered by the  Societe  d'Encouragement  pour l'Industrie
     Nationale.  MTCo 170

     Britain produces 10 M tons of coal.  SHEg 122

 1807  Marc Brunel's  45 machines  (of 22  types) to mass produce
     ship's blocks  installed  at  Portsmouth  Dockyard.   Saw,
     bore,  mortise,  and  shape  the  shells and pulleys.  Ten
     unskilled men replaced 110 skilled craftsmen;  in 1808 the
     installation  produced  130,000  blocks.    18CI.   Samuel
     Bentham  (Jeremy's  father),  Marc  Isambard  Brunel (from
     France), and Henry Maudslay.  A ship of the line used 1400
     blocks.  44 machines,  all  powered  by  one  32  hp steam
     engine.  TWC2 39.  A 74-gun ship of the line required 1400
     blocks.  SHEg 117.  43 machines and a 30  hp steam engine.
     Take in logs.  HInv 152

     Aug  17,  1  pm:    Fulton,  initial  trial  of  steamboat
     _Clermont_ on the Hudson  River begins  at New  York.  For
     this  occasion,  Livingston's  powerful clan gather.  N&BP
     26, 75, 79.   Reaches Fulton's  estate Claremont  on 18th.
     To Albany.   18CI, HTIA 2, TIAm 39, HInv 172, RatW 36, CHW
     849, SHEg 114

 1804  J.  M.  Jacquard  completes  a  loom.    He   made  it  by
     rebuilding and  improving on the silk loom made by Jacques
     de Vaucanson in 1740, which he found in  the Conservatoire
     des Arts et Metiers.  Lyons.  SHEg 110, MTCo 36

 1801  Jan:  After 3 years, Eli Whitney has produced no guns.  He
     demonstrates to Adams and Jefferson  that  he  can  fit 10
     different locks  to the  same musket.  They are impressed,
     and he becomes notorious.  Studies  in the  1960s strongly
     suggest that he faked the show.  Muskets in several modern
     collections have parts that  cannot  be  interchanged, and
     even  the  last  ones  he  made are marked.  InAm 24, TAHI
     47-49, TIAm 59, 61, N&BP 101

 1800  Benjamin Gott's woolen factory  at Leeds  now employs 1000
     persons.   He has  applied cotton techniques and started a
     boom in the town.  SHEg 111

     500 steam engines from the factory of Matthew  Boulton and
     Thomas Watt have been installed.  RatW 24

     Britain exports cotton goods worth L5.4 M.  HInv 145

     Britain uses 6 M tons of coal annually.  HInv 162

     About 2000 power looms in Britain.  HInv 146

 1799  Francois  Louis  Robert,  patent  issues  for  fourdrinier
     papermaking machine.  Not exploited successfully.  France.

     Charles Tennant,  slaked lime impregnated with chlorine as
     a nonpoisonous bleach for textiles.  The chlorine  is made
     with sulphuric  acid, salt, and manganese oxide.  Glasgow,
     Great Britain.  18CI

     Joseph Huddart, rope-making machinery, second patent.  The
     object is  to put  equal stress on all fibres of the rope,
     and to make the rope in a small space.  Successful.  Great
     Britain.  18CI

 1798  Francois Louis  Robert, paper-making machine.  His machine
     uses wood pulp; a continuous belt of copper  or brass wire
     mesh revolves  over a horizontal frame with metal rollers.
     Wood pulp spread over  the  belt  loses  water  and passes
     through felt rollers and is dried.  France.  18CI

 1797  Henry Maudslay,  screw cutting  lathe.  Scaled up from the
     instrument-maker's device.  He cuts a  lead screw  of wood
     or soft  metal by  hand, and uses it on the lathe to cut a
     duplicate of iron or  steel to  replace the  first.  Great
     Britain.  18CI

     Charles   Newbold,   cast   iron   plow   permitting  mass
     production.   It supplants  wooden plowshares.   TWC2 355,
     InAm 49

     Dundonald  and   Losh  alkali   works  founded,  Tyneside,
     England.  SSCB 109

 1795  Jacob Perkins, nail-making machine, 200,000 a  day.  Price
     falls from $0.25/lb to $0.08/lb in a generation.  N&BP 26,

 1793  Eli Whitney, cotton gin.  Moves to Savannah.   Mrs. Greene
     asks her  guest to  examine this problem, and he solves it
     in two weeks.  Moves to New Haven and gets rich but has to
     litigate  many   infringements.    In  1793,  USA  exports
     487,000 lbs of cotton;  in 1803,  over 40  Mlbs.   But the
     need for  cotton engenders  a need  for slaves.  USA.  FW,
     18CI, CHW 823, HInv 146, TIAm 52, N&BP 26

 1790  Dec 20:  Spinning mill begins work.  Built for Moses Brown
     and  associates  by  Samuel  Slater, using machines copied
     from the English originals  he remembers.   Pawtucket, RI.
     N&BP 50, InAm 25-26

     Crank  mill  built  at  Morley,  Yorkshire,  one  of first
     powered by steam.  HInv 147

     Cheap sulfuric acid for  textile  bleaching,  soap making,
     and metal  refining, due  to John Roebuck, and cheap iron,
     due to Cort  are  necessary  for  the  rapid  expansion of
     British industry beginning about 1790.  18CI 107

 1789  Samuel Slater  ends apprenticeship with Jedediah Strutt in
     England;  he  has  supervised  a  factory  using Arkwright
     machines, and acquired knowledge of textile machines.  For
     opportunity  to  advance,  he   emigrates  furtively  from
     England   to   NY   [Philadelphia].    Shortly  manages  a
     manufactory in Pawtucket, RI.  N&BP 48, SHEg 116, TIAm 48

 1787  Oliver  Evans,  grist  mill.    Mechanized continuous-flow
     process.  Near Philadelphia.  TWC2 40

 1786  Watt's engines  are driving  a paper  mill, a corn mill, a
     cotton spinning mill, and supplying power to a brewery and
     Wilkinson's iron works.  SHEg 91

 1785  Edmund  Cartwright,  power  loom.   Improved to commercial
     usability 1786 and  1787.    Spring-thrown  shuttle; power
     applied to  compress spring.   First  application of steam
     engine to textile factory.  Patent.   Great  Britain.  FW,
     18CI, SSCB 97, CHW 823

     Boulton and  Watt steam  engine installed in a cotton mill
     at Papplewick.  Another begins operating at a  colliery in
     Mansfield.  HInv 145, RatW 24-25

     J. Rennie  begins millwork for a Watt rotative beam engine
     with governor and throttle, for Albion Flour Mills.  First
     use other  than pumping.   Drive millstones, hoists, fans,
     cranes, sifters, and dressers.  Rennie  introduces wrought
     and cast iron wheels.  SHEg 90-91

     Oliver Evans  completes automatic flour mill:  Moves grain
     and  flour  with  buckets  on  belts  and  endless screws.
     Redclay Creek valley.  TAHI 2, MTCo 82

 1784  Henry  Cort,   iron  smelting  to  remove  carbon  by  dry
     puddling: stirring molten iron in a  reverberatory furnace
     heated with  pit coal  and then using a tilt hammer.  Uses
     high-quality iron from Sweden.  Develops existing ideas to
     make one  of the  most significant advances in metallurgy.
     18CI, HInv 185

     Nicholas Leblanc,  production  of  soda:    Heat  salt and
     sulphuric acid  to get sodium sulphate which, heated again
     with limestone and coke, yields the product.   He succeeds
     with the process by 1788.  SSCB 122

 1783  Henry Cort,  grooved rollers  for making iron bars.  Great
     Britain.  18CI

     Henry Cort patents puddling process.  Great Britain.  SHEg

     Thomas  Bell,   textile  printing.    1  to  5  colors  in
     succession;  engraved  copper  cylinder,   3-4  inches  in
     diameter.  50-to-1 reduction in labor from block printing.
     Great Britain.  18CI

     Oliver Evans, model of production line  for grain milling.
     MTCo 78, 81, TIAm 35

 1782  Oliver Evans conceives of automatic grist mill.  N&BP 57

 1780  Oliver Evans,  automatic flour mill.  He proposes to solve
     the problem  of labor  shortage by  eliminating all manual
     stages in the milling operation.  USA.  18CI

     Samuel Crompton,  spinning mule.  Improves on the spinning
     jenny with spindles on  a  movable  carriage  resulting in
     finer,  more  regular  thread.   No patent, little reward.
     Great Britain.  18CI

     Jacques Vaucanson, lathe.  France.  Bed rails  turned with
     a sharp  edge up  so that the carriage rests on two faces.
     Square-thread screw.  First step from wooden-bed lathe for
     furniture to the engineering lathe.  18CI

 1779  Samuel  Crompton  completes  his  spinning mule, embodying
     features of Hargreaves's and  Arkwright's machines.   HInv

 1778  Crompton, spinning mule.  SSCB 97

     137 steam engines have been constructed in the coal fields
     of Tyneside.  SHEg 87

 1776  Adam Smith, _Inquiry into the Nature of the  Causes of the
     Wealth of  Nations_.   The classic  of classical political
     economy.  MTCo 137, CHW 693, 823

     Adam  Smith  says  that  the  spinning  wheel  doubles the
     productivity of labor.  SHTy 97

     Nathan Sellers  has built machines to make leather carding
     brushes.  Perforator, wire  cutter, bender.   He  puts out
     assembly to  300-400 persons  drawn from  a roster of 3000
     women and  children.    Philadelphia.    N&BP  3.    He is
     recalled from Army to make paper for money.  N&BP 22

 1775  Arkwright, carding machine.  SSCB 97

     James  Watt  demonstrates  his  steam engine; reduces fuel
     consumption by 2/3 from Newcomen's requirement;  sales are
     good.  18CI

 1770  Richard Arkwright  enters partnership with Samuel Need and
     Jedediah Strutt, hosiers.   They open  a water-driven mill
     at Cromford.  Beginning of the FACTORY SYSTEM.  HInv 145

 1767  A steel  furnace in  northeast England can hold as much as
     11 tons; heating for 5x24 hours.  HInv 185

     Peter Woulfe, Experiments on the Distillation  of Acid and
     Volatile  Alkalies  (Royal  Society):   Pass gases through
     liquids to produce ammonia, hydrochloric acid,  and nitric
     acid, and to distill and collect acids in fractions.  18CI

 1765  James  Watt,  working  as  an  instrument maker at Glasgow
     University in association with  Joseph  Black  who studies
     heat in chemical reactions, sees the Newcomen steam engine
     that he is asked to repair as a heat engine and decides to
     separate the condenser.  18CI and many others

 1757  James Hargreaves, a poor weaver, completes spinning jenny.
     MTCo 37

 1744  John Roebuck & Samuel Garbett  set  up  metal  refinery in
     Birmingham.  Roebuck switches the making of sulphuric acid
     from small glass containers to lead-lined tanks.  The cost
     goes down and the supply goes up.  18CI

 1740  Iron produced in Britain:  17,000 tons.  HInv 153

 1738  Lewis  Paul  patents  a  cotton-spinning  machine, but his
     carpenter John Wyatt may be the true inventor.   Two pairs
     of  rollers,  one  pair  revolving  faster than the other.
     First mill at Birmingham  powered  by  donkeys,  second at
     Nottingham powered by water wheel.  Little success, partly
     because of transportation costs.  18CI, SHTy 105

     John Kay, flying shuttle; nearly doubles the production of
     cloth.   Great Britain.   Kay  is persecuted  and moves to
     Paris.  18CI

 1729  Newcomen dies.  His engine is  in use  in Hungary, France,
     Belgium, etc.  HInv 159

 1727  Daniel Defoe  writes that  the Derby  Mill (silk spinning,
     with a waterwheel built  by George  Sorocold) is  the only
     one of its kind in England.  SHEg 80

 1720  Britain exports worth L8 M.  SHTy 44

     Britain  produces  17,000  tons  of  pig  iron at 60 blast
     furnaces.  SHEg 85

 1658  Newcastle exports 529,032 tons of coal a year.  SHEg 70

 1530  German silver mining  has  quintupled  supply  since 1460.
     Fuggers of Augsburg become the richest family in the west.
     SHTy 39

 1525  In  Germany,  100,000  men  are  employed  in  mining  and
     smelting.  SHGe 61

 1400  Paved streets in most cities.  Europe.  HTIn 546

 1200  Extent of  land cultivated in Europe is increasing, mostly
     by clearing of  forests;  ash  of  burned  forest improves
     soil.  Metallurgy starts again.  HTIn 463

 1086  The Domesday Book, survey of assessment for tax, compiled.
     It lists 5624 water  mills for  some 3,000  communities in
     England south  of the  Trent and Severn.  1195 salt works.
     Production of iron in  England  has  trebled  since Norman
     invasion.  MRTe 144, 292, SHEg 47-48, HInv 113, TTHy

  864  Liming every  fifteen years.  Mention in decree of Pitres.
     Perhaps the explanation was to purify the fields, but lime
     is calcium  oxide, and  calcium is necessary to the health
     of animals and us.   Rediscovery  or reinvention  of Roman
     lore.  HTIn 464

  800  Agricultural evolution:  Triennial rotation (winter grain,
     spring grain, and a  year of  fallow) practiced  a little.
     Combines the  Germanic lore  of spring  sowings and use of
     iron, and the Roman lore  of  fallowing.    Between Seine,
     Loire, and  Rhine, Germany.   HTIn 462-463, MRTe 140, SHEg

     Grand Canal, China, 1000 km, carries 2 M tons of cargo per
     year.  HInv 61

     Mercians under  Offa build  a 200  km Dyke from the Dee to
     the Severn to contain the Welsh.  HInv 86

  -29  Marcus  Vitruvius   Pollio,   _De   Architectura_  (-11?).
     Prefers earthenware  to lead for pipes; the grey pallor of
     plumbers indicates toxicity of metal.   SHEg 30,  HOTM 32,
     HInv 60

 -220  Flaminian way, Rome-Rimini.  EtAC 18

 -283  Lighthouse  on  Pharos  island,  Alexandria,  begun  under
     Ptolemy Soter by Sostratos of Cnidus.  A  stepped tower at
     least  279  feet  high.    Brazier  and  mirror.   A Greek
     achievement.  HTIn 191, SHTy 171

 -287  Archimedes of Syracuse born, d. -212.  Screw  (?), toothed
     wheel and  gear train,  2-pulley tackle.  Lever.  With his
     machines, 250 kg boulders  could be  catapulted, according
     to A.  G. Drachmann.  Water screw, specific gravity.  SHEg
     26, HOTM 26-27, CHW 682

 -400  Water control begins.  China.  Toynbee

     Iron molds for  making  agricultural  implements.   China.
     HInv 76

 -500  Iron working  best in  Celtic areas,  esp. Spain:  Catalan
     furnace with alternating  bellows  yields  malleable iron;
     2-story shaft  furnaces yield a highly carbonized iron for
     forging.  SHTy 125-126

     Plow painted on a cup.  Greece.  SHTy 55

     Beam press for olives and grapes painted on a vase.  Built
     in Athens.  SHTy 60, HOTM 42

     Potter's wheel used as lathe.  SHTy 76

     Loom 5' wide painted on vase.  Greece.  SHTy 81

     Eupalinos [Eupalinus] builds an aqueduct at Samis [Samos].
     2/3 of it is a tunnel 1100 m long, 2.5 m square, through a
     hill 300  m high.   Herodotus thinks this one of the three
     greatest  Greek  constructions.    Alignment  of  two ends
     missed by 16'.  HInv 59, SHTy 169

     Wheel of  pots for raising water.  Babylon.  Endless chain
     of buckets may have  been used  in Hanging  Gardens.  HInv
     28, 31

-1200  IRON AGE  begins.   Destruction of Hittite empire scatters
     the smiths and loosens the monopoly.  Iron  begins to come
     into common  use.   Spreads in  the Euphrates valley, esp.
     Assyrians.  Swords of iron  are  strong.    First weapons;
     then  hoe,  axe,  and  pick.   Finally, new tools:  tongs,
     anvils, dies, frame saws.  HInv 18, 73, CHW 137, SHTy 120,
     122, SHEg 21.  

     Close-fitting  two-part  molds  for  casting gold, bronze.
     Ugarit, Syria, Mesopotamia.  SHTy 118-119, HInv 72, 76

     Spoked wheel in China.  HInv 46

     Stone dike to store water.    1.25  miles  long.   Orontes
     valley, Syria.  SHTy 53

-1350  Hittite power  at zenith;  in Anatolia,  cities with stone
     walls;  copper,  silver,  and  lead.    Control  Syria and
     threaten  Egypt.    Library  in  capital  has tablets in 8
     languages.  SHEg 21

-1500  Troy, after 5 earlier  rebuildings, is  a prosperous large
     city enclosed by walls with square towers.  HInv 86

     Rice in  paddies, fields  with raised banks to hold water.
     China.  HInv 26

     Kaolins, clays which vitrify  at lower  temperatures, used
     in pottery.  China.  HInv 39

-1600  Walled cities, grid-iron plan.  China.  HInv 20

     Spoked wheel in Egypt.  HInv 46

-2000  270,000 km of water conduits in Iran.  HOTM 18

     Spoked wheel.  Mesopotamia.  HInv 45, 46

     Potter's wheel  with kick wheel below; kiln.  Mesopotamia.
     TTHy, SHTy 76

-2500  Indus Civilization begins to flourish in  parts of Western
     and  Northern   India.     Principal  cities  Harappa  and
     Mohenjo-Daro; 1.25 M sq  km.    Bronze  tools and weapons.
     The rest  of India  in Stone Age.  Toynbee, HInv 29, TTHy,
     AA 64:889.  HDSI 5

     Dam across Wadi Gerrawi, eastern Egypt.  90 m thick, 125 m
     long.  Masonry face.  HInv 58

-2700  Ship of  Re:   600 pieces  of cedar joined with tenons and
     thongs, with butt and scarfed joints.   No  keel, but tall
     stem  and  stern  pieces  attached to central longitudinal
     timber.  Cabin on  a deck.   5  spear-shaped oars  on each
     side.   Two steering  oars at stern.  40 m long.  HInv 49,

     Potter's wheel.  SHTy 75

     Kilns.  Some vertical.  Bricks made.   Middle East.   SHTy
     77, HInv 38, 52

     Stone building in Egypt.  HInv 10

-3250  Potter's wheel in Mesopotamia.  The oldest wheel-made pot,
     according to Singer.  HOTM 26,  HInv 10,  36, 38,  CHW 50,

-3300  Sailboats and animal-drawn plows in Sumer.  CHW 50

-3500  Plows  in  Sumeria;  early  irrigation; pottery and bricks
     fired in kilns in Middle East.  Egypt Nile culture.   HInv
     10, ACSD 20

     Wheeled vehicles  in Sumeria,  Mesopotamia:  A cart with 4
     solid wheels, depicted on a tablet from Erech.  After this
     date,  an  astonishing  range  of  artifacts  show wheeled
     vehicles.  Rim (felloe).  HInv 10, 31, 43, 45-46, ACSD 18,
     HOTM 26, TTHy

-4000  The  jungle  and  swamp  in  the lower Nile Valley and its
     Delta  and  in  the  Lower  Tigris-Euphrates   Valley  are
     gradually reclaimed  after this date; irrigation begins in
     Egypt.    Distinct  Egyptiac   and  Sumeric  CIVILIZATIONS
     emerge.  Toynbee, HInv 10

-5000  Agriculture  on  river  terraces  in  north  and northwest
     China.  Wheat and millet.  HInv 26

-6000  Catal Huyuk,  a  large  complex  of  houses.    Walls with
     religious  paintings,  human  and  animal figures.  Wooden
     vessels, coiled baskets;  polished  axes;  woolen textiles
     for  clothing  and  furnishings;  antler  and bone ladles,
     spoons, and needles.   Figure of  woman giving  birth to a
     bull;  a  couple  in  embrace.   14 food plants; meat from
     hunting.  Konya plain, southern Turkey.  HDSI 25

-6400  Pesse boat, a dugout canoe 4  m long.   Holland.   CHW 50,
     HInv 10, HInv 47

-6500  Jarmo, village  of 25  huts.  Clay ovens; bases for silos;
     plaited mats.  2-row barley, emmer wheat, peas.  HDSI 24

     Pottery.  AA 64:889

-7000  Pottery begins.  Possibly some is fired.  ACSD 13, CHW 50

-7500  Extensive settlement at  Jericho,  weaving, fortification,
     remains of  cultivated cereals.   Ovens.  CHW 10, 50, HInv

-7700  Catal Huyuk in Turkey first occupied; 13 hectares.   Stone
     or mud  brick houses.  Pits for granaries.  Obsidian mined
     for tools; fertility cult  indicates  use  of domesticated
     cattle.    Frescoes  of  hunting  scenes and bones of wild
     animals.  HInv 25, CHW 10, 50

-7800  Pottery at Beldibi, southwestern  Anatolia;  perhaps.   AA

-8000  AGRICULTURAL   REVOLUTION   begins:    Neolithic  replaces
     Mesolithic.     Fertile   Crescent:      eastern   end  of
     Mediterranean  and  Mesopotamia,  3000  km.    Hunting and
     gathering continue in farming  groups.   HInv 10,  24, 26,
     ACSD 10, MMLM 127

     Jericho, walled city, 4 hectares.  Mud brick wall socketed
     to take crossbeams.  A town before pottery.  HInv 25, SHTy
     158, MMLM 155

     Jarmo, northern  Iraq, town  of 100-300  persons in houses
     with thin walls of packed mud.   Excavated  1948 by Robert
     J. Braidwood.  ACSD 12

     Clay pots for cooking.  MMLM 155

                    SOURCES used in Figures

ACSD Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery.  500-1984


CHW  Columbia History of the World.

DKGS Donald Kennedy, address at centennial, reprinted Harvard
     Graduate Society Newsletter, Fall 1989.

E&P  Energy and Power.  Scientific American.

EETc Energy, Economics, and Technology

EUSA Energy in the United States

FW   Funk & Wagnall's New Encyclopedia

GRTC Greek and Roman Technology.  K. D. White.  Pp. 1-90

HBC2 History of the British Coal Industry, vol. 2.

HEAn History of Education in Antiquity.  Marrou.  Pp. 1-226

MP&W Mercedes in Peace and War:  German Automobile Workers, 1903-
     1945.  Bernard P. Bellon.  Columbia University Press, 1990. 
     Notes from review by Herbert Mitgang, NYT 900823:C20

NIHF National Inventors Hall of Fame.  From UnAl 360 ff

RBF  Critical Path.  R. Buckminster Fuller.  Appendix 1, 2

TCBI Hyde, Charles K.  Technological Change and the British Iron
     Industry, 1700-1870

TIRv Transatlantic Industrial Revolution.  D. J. Jeremy.

TTHy Timetable of History.  1100-1625, 1784-1970

UnAl Universal Almanac

USCI Zimmerman, Martin B.  The U.S. Coal Industry

WA   Information Please Almanac.

WCEP Gordon, Richard L.  World Coal:  Economics, Policies and

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